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Iron stores of breastfed infants during the first year of life.

Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Jeter JM - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months.We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months.Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, A136 MTF, 2501 Crosspark Rd., Coralville, IA 52241-8802, USA. ekhard-ziegler@uiowa.edu.

ABSTRACT
The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF) and transferrin receptor (TfR) were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L) began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

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Percentile values for PF from 1 to 12 months (males and females combined).
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nutrients-06-02023-f005: Percentile values for PF from 1 to 12 months (males and females combined).

Mentions: Gender: Plasma ferritin showed marked gender-related differences as indicated in Table 2 and Figure 5, with levels of female infants being significantly higher than levels of male infants at most ages. Accordingly, female infants became iron deficient (PF < 10 µg/L) less frequently than male infants (Table 2). Gender-related differences were also present in TfR but, contrary to PF, males had higher levels, with differences being statistically significant except at 9 and 12 months. Body iron was significantly higher in females than males except for 12 months.


Iron stores of breastfed infants during the first year of life.

Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Jeter JM - Nutrients (2014)

Percentile values for PF from 1 to 12 months (males and females combined).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042569&req=5

nutrients-06-02023-f005: Percentile values for PF from 1 to 12 months (males and females combined).
Mentions: Gender: Plasma ferritin showed marked gender-related differences as indicated in Table 2 and Figure 5, with levels of female infants being significantly higher than levels of male infants at most ages. Accordingly, female infants became iron deficient (PF < 10 µg/L) less frequently than male infants (Table 2). Gender-related differences were also present in TfR but, contrary to PF, males had higher levels, with differences being statistically significant except at 9 and 12 months. Body iron was significantly higher in females than males except for 12 months.

Bottom Line: PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months.We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months.Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, A136 MTF, 2501 Crosspark Rd., Coralville, IA 52241-8802, USA. ekhard-ziegler@uiowa.edu.

ABSTRACT
The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF) and transferrin receptor (TfR) were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L) began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus