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Iron stores of breastfed infants during the first year of life.

Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Jeter JM - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months.We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months.Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, A136 MTF, 2501 Crosspark Rd., Coralville, IA 52241-8802, USA. ekhard-ziegler@uiowa.edu.

ABSTRACT
The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF) and transferrin receptor (TfR) were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L) began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

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PF of individual infants from 1 to 12 months.
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nutrients-06-02023-f003: PF of individual infants from 1 to 12 months.

Mentions: As shown in Figure 3 and Table 2, infant PF decreased rapidly with age but leveled off after 5.5 months, indicating exhaustion of the iron endowment. In some infants, PF increased between 1 and 4 months, presumably indicating continuing recycling of iron from hemoglobin breakdown. Transient increases of PF at other ages indicate acute phase reactions. From 2 to 5.5 months, average PF declined by 1.1 (SD 0.40) % each day. The decline was strongly inversely correlated with gain in weight and length (p ≤ 0.0001). This is consistent with the notion that growth is the main cause of the decline of PF. As PF decreased, the range of values narrowed progressively. This is illustrated by the percentile values shown in Figure 4.


Iron stores of breastfed infants during the first year of life.

Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Jeter JM - Nutrients (2014)

PF of individual infants from 1 to 12 months.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042569&req=5

nutrients-06-02023-f003: PF of individual infants from 1 to 12 months.
Mentions: As shown in Figure 3 and Table 2, infant PF decreased rapidly with age but leveled off after 5.5 months, indicating exhaustion of the iron endowment. In some infants, PF increased between 1 and 4 months, presumably indicating continuing recycling of iron from hemoglobin breakdown. Transient increases of PF at other ages indicate acute phase reactions. From 2 to 5.5 months, average PF declined by 1.1 (SD 0.40) % each day. The decline was strongly inversely correlated with gain in weight and length (p ≤ 0.0001). This is consistent with the notion that growth is the main cause of the decline of PF. As PF decreased, the range of values narrowed progressively. This is illustrated by the percentile values shown in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months.We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months.Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, A136 MTF, 2501 Crosspark Rd., Coralville, IA 52241-8802, USA. ekhard-ziegler@uiowa.edu.

ABSTRACT
The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF) and transferrin receptor (TfR) were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L) began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus