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Iron stores of breastfed infants during the first year of life.

Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Jeter JM - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months.We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months.Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, A136 MTF, 2501 Crosspark Rd., Coralville, IA 52241-8802, USA. ekhard-ziegler@uiowa.edu.

ABSTRACT
The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF) and transferrin receptor (TfR) were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L) began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

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Relationship between maternal and infant plasma ferritin one month after birth (r = 0.081, p = 0.283).
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nutrients-06-02023-f002: Relationship between maternal and infant plasma ferritin one month after birth (r = 0.081, p = 0.283).

Mentions: At 1 month, PF averaged 242 µg/L with a range from 38 to 752 µg/L (Figure 1, Table 2). Maternal PF obtained at the same time averaged 42 µg/L (SD 34 µg/L) (Figure 1). It is evident that a fair proportion of mothers were in less than optimal iron nutritional status, with 12 mothers having PF < 10 µg/L. However, iron status of the mother was not an important factor determining infant iron stores. As illustrated in Figure 2, the relationship between maternal and infant PF levels was weak (r = 0.081, p = 0.283). Maternal iron status explained only 6.4% of the variation in infant iron endowment. As Figure 2 shows, when the mother’s iron stores were low (PF < 20 µg/L, her infant’s PF could still range from 40 to 680 µg/L.


Iron stores of breastfed infants during the first year of life.

Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Jeter JM - Nutrients (2014)

Relationship between maternal and infant plasma ferritin one month after birth (r = 0.081, p = 0.283).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042569&req=5

nutrients-06-02023-f002: Relationship between maternal and infant plasma ferritin one month after birth (r = 0.081, p = 0.283).
Mentions: At 1 month, PF averaged 242 µg/L with a range from 38 to 752 µg/L (Figure 1, Table 2). Maternal PF obtained at the same time averaged 42 µg/L (SD 34 µg/L) (Figure 1). It is evident that a fair proportion of mothers were in less than optimal iron nutritional status, with 12 mothers having PF < 10 µg/L. However, iron status of the mother was not an important factor determining infant iron stores. As illustrated in Figure 2, the relationship between maternal and infant PF levels was weak (r = 0.081, p = 0.283). Maternal iron status explained only 6.4% of the variation in infant iron endowment. As Figure 2 shows, when the mother’s iron stores were low (PF < 20 µg/L, her infant’s PF could still range from 40 to 680 µg/L.

Bottom Line: PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months.We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months.Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, A136 MTF, 2501 Crosspark Rd., Coralville, IA 52241-8802, USA. ekhard-ziegler@uiowa.edu.

ABSTRACT
The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF) and transferrin receptor (TfR) were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L) began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus