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Vitamin B₁₂-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

Watanabe F, Yabuta Y, Bito T, Teng F - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12.Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Applied Bioresources Chemistry, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. watanabe@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

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Proposed method for improving nutrient imbalance in vegetarian diets using dried purple laver as a Vitamin B12 source in addition to other plant-based food sources.
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nutrients-06-01861-f004: Proposed method for improving nutrient imbalance in vegetarian diets using dried purple laver as a Vitamin B12 source in addition to other plant-based food sources.

Mentions: A survey of naturally occurring and high Vitamin B12-containing plant-derived food sources showed that nori, which is formed into a sheet and dried, is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source for vegetarians presently available. Consumption of approximately 4 g of dried purple laver (Vitamin B12 content: 77.6 μg /100 g dry weight) supplies the RDA of 2.4 μg/day. In Japan, several sheets of nori (9 × 3 cm2; approximately 0.3 g each) are often served for breakfast. A large amount of nori can be consumed as certain forms of sushi (vinegared rice rolled in nori). In particular, hand-rolled sushi made by wrapping rice and fillings with nori is easy to prepare and facilitates the consumption of a large amount of nori. When dried purple laver was treated by toasting until the laver’s color changed from purple to green, the toasting treatment did not affect the Vitamin B12 contents [57]. Dried purple lavers could also be a suitable food item for integration in Italian, French, and other forms of western cuisine. Dried purple laver is also a rich source of iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Figure 4). Dried purple laver is a natural plant product; therefore, it is suitable for most vegetarian groups. Among edible mushrooms, relatively high levels of Vitamin B12 were detected in the commercially available shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies, but the Vitamin B12 content significantly varies (1.3–12.7 μg/100 g dry weight), which is significantly lower than that found in dried purple laver. However, the dried shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies (per 100 g) contain 18.9 mg of Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and 2.0 mg of iron [63], which are also nutrients that vegetarian diets tend to lack. Thus, the use of these plant-based food sources can significantly improve the nutrient imbalance in vegetarian diets to reduce the incidence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians.


Vitamin B₁₂-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

Watanabe F, Yabuta Y, Bito T, Teng F - Nutrients (2014)

Proposed method for improving nutrient imbalance in vegetarian diets using dried purple laver as a Vitamin B12 source in addition to other plant-based food sources.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042564&req=5

nutrients-06-01861-f004: Proposed method for improving nutrient imbalance in vegetarian diets using dried purple laver as a Vitamin B12 source in addition to other plant-based food sources.
Mentions: A survey of naturally occurring and high Vitamin B12-containing plant-derived food sources showed that nori, which is formed into a sheet and dried, is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source for vegetarians presently available. Consumption of approximately 4 g of dried purple laver (Vitamin B12 content: 77.6 μg /100 g dry weight) supplies the RDA of 2.4 μg/day. In Japan, several sheets of nori (9 × 3 cm2; approximately 0.3 g each) are often served for breakfast. A large amount of nori can be consumed as certain forms of sushi (vinegared rice rolled in nori). In particular, hand-rolled sushi made by wrapping rice and fillings with nori is easy to prepare and facilitates the consumption of a large amount of nori. When dried purple laver was treated by toasting until the laver’s color changed from purple to green, the toasting treatment did not affect the Vitamin B12 contents [57]. Dried purple lavers could also be a suitable food item for integration in Italian, French, and other forms of western cuisine. Dried purple laver is also a rich source of iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Figure 4). Dried purple laver is a natural plant product; therefore, it is suitable for most vegetarian groups. Among edible mushrooms, relatively high levels of Vitamin B12 were detected in the commercially available shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies, but the Vitamin B12 content significantly varies (1.3–12.7 μg/100 g dry weight), which is significantly lower than that found in dried purple laver. However, the dried shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies (per 100 g) contain 18.9 mg of Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and 2.0 mg of iron [63], which are also nutrients that vegetarian diets tend to lack. Thus, the use of these plant-based food sources can significantly improve the nutrient imbalance in vegetarian diets to reduce the incidence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians.

Bottom Line: To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12.Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Applied Bioresources Chemistry, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. watanabe@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus