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Vitamin B₁₂-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

Watanabe F, Yabuta Y, Bito T, Teng F - Nutrients (2014)

Bottom Line: To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12.Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Applied Bioresources Chemistry, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. watanabe@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

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Structural formulae of Vitamin B12 and pseudovitamin B12. (1) Vitamin B12 and (2) pseudovitamin B12 (7-adeninyl cyanocobamide).
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nutrients-06-01861-f003: Structural formulae of Vitamin B12 and pseudovitamin B12. (1) Vitamin B12 and (2) pseudovitamin B12 (7-adeninyl cyanocobamide).

Mentions: Chlorella tablets (eukaryotic microalgae Chlorella sp.) used in human food supplements contain biologically active Vitamin B12 [65]. However, our unpublished study indicates that the Vitamin B12 contents significantly differ among various commercially available Chlorella tablets (from zero to several hundred μg of Vitamin B12 per 100 g dry weight); we do not have any information on why such a huge variation occurs. Thus, vegetarians who consume Chlorella tablets as a source of Vitamin B12 should check the nutrition labeling of Chlorella products to confirm their Vitamin B12 contents. High levels of Vitamin B12 are described in the nutritional labels of dietary supplements that contain edible cyanobacteria such as Spirulina, Aphanizomenon, and Nostoc. However, although substantial amounts of Vitamin B12 were detected in these commercially available supplements using a microbiological Vitamin B12 assay method, these supplements often contained large amounts of pseudovitamin B12 [66,67,68,69,70,71] (Figure 3), which is biologically inactive in humans. Therefore, edible cyanobacteria and their products are not suitable for use as sources of Vitamin B12 for vegetarians.


Vitamin B₁₂-containing plant food sources for vegetarians.

Watanabe F, Yabuta Y, Bito T, Teng F - Nutrients (2014)

Structural formulae of Vitamin B12 and pseudovitamin B12. (1) Vitamin B12 and (2) pseudovitamin B12 (7-adeninyl cyanocobamide).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042564&req=5

nutrients-06-01861-f003: Structural formulae of Vitamin B12 and pseudovitamin B12. (1) Vitamin B12 and (2) pseudovitamin B12 (7-adeninyl cyanocobamide).
Mentions: Chlorella tablets (eukaryotic microalgae Chlorella sp.) used in human food supplements contain biologically active Vitamin B12 [65]. However, our unpublished study indicates that the Vitamin B12 contents significantly differ among various commercially available Chlorella tablets (from zero to several hundred μg of Vitamin B12 per 100 g dry weight); we do not have any information on why such a huge variation occurs. Thus, vegetarians who consume Chlorella tablets as a source of Vitamin B12 should check the nutrition labeling of Chlorella products to confirm their Vitamin B12 contents. High levels of Vitamin B12 are described in the nutritional labels of dietary supplements that contain edible cyanobacteria such as Spirulina, Aphanizomenon, and Nostoc. However, although substantial amounts of Vitamin B12 were detected in these commercially available supplements using a microbiological Vitamin B12 assay method, these supplements often contained large amounts of pseudovitamin B12 [66,67,68,69,70,71] (Figure 3), which is biologically inactive in humans. Therefore, edible cyanobacteria and their products are not suitable for use as sources of Vitamin B12 for vegetarians.

Bottom Line: To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12.Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Applied Bioresources Chemistry, The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553, Japan. watanabe@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus