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Epigenetic regulation of bud dormancy events in perennial plants.

Ríos G, Leida C, Conejero A, Badenes ML - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Moreover, functional evidence suggests the involvement of DAM genes in the regulation of seasonal dormancy in peach.Recent findings highlight the presence of genome-wide epigenetic modifications related to dormancy events, and more specifically the epigenetic regulation of DAM-related genes in a similar way to FLOWERING LOCUS C, a key integrator of vernalization effectors on flowering initiation in Arabidopsis.We revise the most relevant molecular and genomic contributions in the field of bud dormancy, and discuss the increasing evidence for chromatin modification involvement in the epigenetic regulation of seasonal dormancy cycles in perennial plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias Moncada, Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Release of bud dormancy in perennial plants resembles vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana and cereals. In both cases, a certain period of chilling is required for accomplishing the reproductive phase, and several transcription factors with the MADS-box domain perform a central regulatory role in these processes. The expression of DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-box (DAM)-related genes has been found to be up-regulated in dormant buds of numerous plant species, such as poplar, raspberry, leafy spurge, blackcurrant, Japanese apricot, and peach. Moreover, functional evidence suggests the involvement of DAM genes in the regulation of seasonal dormancy in peach. Recent findings highlight the presence of genome-wide epigenetic modifications related to dormancy events, and more specifically the epigenetic regulation of DAM-related genes in a similar way to FLOWERING LOCUS C, a key integrator of vernalization effectors on flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We revise the most relevant molecular and genomic contributions in the field of bud dormancy, and discuss the increasing evidence for chromatin modification involvement in the epigenetic regulation of seasonal dormancy cycles in perennial plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

General and specific modifications of chromatin in dormant and dormancy-released buds. The following chromatin modifications have been identified in chestnut at the genome level (left), and specifically in the DAM locus in leafy spurge and peach (right): DNA methylation (DNAme), acetylation of histone H4 (H4ac), acetylation of H3 (H3ac), trimethylation of H3 at K4 (H3K4me3), and trimethylation of H3 at K27 (H3K27me3).
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Figure 1: General and specific modifications of chromatin in dormant and dormancy-released buds. The following chromatin modifications have been identified in chestnut at the genome level (left), and specifically in the DAM locus in leafy spurge and peach (right): DNA methylation (DNAme), acetylation of histone H4 (H4ac), acetylation of H3 (H3ac), trimethylation of H3 at K4 (H3K4me3), and trimethylation of H3 at K27 (H3K27me3).

Mentions: The global levels of genomic DNA methylation and acetylated histone 4 (H4) show cyclic and opposite variations during the seasonal development of chestnut (Castanea sativa), with higher DNA methylation ratios and lower H4 acetylation levels in dormant buds with respect to actively growing tissues (Santamaría et al., 2009; Figure 1). These data support a significant silencing of bulk gene expression concomitant with bud dormancy; however, the epigenetic regulation of particular genes with a relevant role in regulatory issues may differ from this global tendency to gene repression. Indeed, in a subsequent work, the authors have found the gene CsAUR3 encoding an H3 kinase-like expressed in growing tissue, and genes CsHUB2 and CsGCN5L coding for putative histone mono-ubiquitinase and histone acetyltransferase with higher expression in dormant buds (Santamar໚ et al., 2011). Interestingly, the hub2 mutant in Arabidopsis displays reduced seed dormancy (Liu et al., 2007). In agreement with overall DNA methylation changes in chestnut, a decrease in DNA methylation at 5′-CCGG-3′ sites precedes dormancy release, transcriptional activation, and meristem growth in potato tubers (Law and Suttle, 2003).


Epigenetic regulation of bud dormancy events in perennial plants.

Ríos G, Leida C, Conejero A, Badenes ML - Front Plant Sci (2014)

General and specific modifications of chromatin in dormant and dormancy-released buds. The following chromatin modifications have been identified in chestnut at the genome level (left), and specifically in the DAM locus in leafy spurge and peach (right): DNA methylation (DNAme), acetylation of histone H4 (H4ac), acetylation of H3 (H3ac), trimethylation of H3 at K4 (H3K4me3), and trimethylation of H3 at K27 (H3K27me3).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042555&req=5

Figure 1: General and specific modifications of chromatin in dormant and dormancy-released buds. The following chromatin modifications have been identified in chestnut at the genome level (left), and specifically in the DAM locus in leafy spurge and peach (right): DNA methylation (DNAme), acetylation of histone H4 (H4ac), acetylation of H3 (H3ac), trimethylation of H3 at K4 (H3K4me3), and trimethylation of H3 at K27 (H3K27me3).
Mentions: The global levels of genomic DNA methylation and acetylated histone 4 (H4) show cyclic and opposite variations during the seasonal development of chestnut (Castanea sativa), with higher DNA methylation ratios and lower H4 acetylation levels in dormant buds with respect to actively growing tissues (Santamaría et al., 2009; Figure 1). These data support a significant silencing of bulk gene expression concomitant with bud dormancy; however, the epigenetic regulation of particular genes with a relevant role in regulatory issues may differ from this global tendency to gene repression. Indeed, in a subsequent work, the authors have found the gene CsAUR3 encoding an H3 kinase-like expressed in growing tissue, and genes CsHUB2 and CsGCN5L coding for putative histone mono-ubiquitinase and histone acetyltransferase with higher expression in dormant buds (Santamar໚ et al., 2011). Interestingly, the hub2 mutant in Arabidopsis displays reduced seed dormancy (Liu et al., 2007). In agreement with overall DNA methylation changes in chestnut, a decrease in DNA methylation at 5′-CCGG-3′ sites precedes dormancy release, transcriptional activation, and meristem growth in potato tubers (Law and Suttle, 2003).

Bottom Line: Moreover, functional evidence suggests the involvement of DAM genes in the regulation of seasonal dormancy in peach.Recent findings highlight the presence of genome-wide epigenetic modifications related to dormancy events, and more specifically the epigenetic regulation of DAM-related genes in a similar way to FLOWERING LOCUS C, a key integrator of vernalization effectors on flowering initiation in Arabidopsis.We revise the most relevant molecular and genomic contributions in the field of bud dormancy, and discuss the increasing evidence for chromatin modification involvement in the epigenetic regulation of seasonal dormancy cycles in perennial plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias Moncada, Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Release of bud dormancy in perennial plants resembles vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana and cereals. In both cases, a certain period of chilling is required for accomplishing the reproductive phase, and several transcription factors with the MADS-box domain perform a central regulatory role in these processes. The expression of DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-box (DAM)-related genes has been found to be up-regulated in dormant buds of numerous plant species, such as poplar, raspberry, leafy spurge, blackcurrant, Japanese apricot, and peach. Moreover, functional evidence suggests the involvement of DAM genes in the regulation of seasonal dormancy in peach. Recent findings highlight the presence of genome-wide epigenetic modifications related to dormancy events, and more specifically the epigenetic regulation of DAM-related genes in a similar way to FLOWERING LOCUS C, a key integrator of vernalization effectors on flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We revise the most relevant molecular and genomic contributions in the field of bud dormancy, and discuss the increasing evidence for chromatin modification involvement in the epigenetic regulation of seasonal dormancy cycles in perennial plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus