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Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

Dash T, Kar BR - Behav Neurol (2014)

Bottom Line: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control.The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions.The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, Senate Hall Campus, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes.

Methods: Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task).

Results: A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

Conclusion: All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a–c): Reaction time data and CDF plot based on the performance of SC on the flanker task with linguistic stimuli.
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fig11: (a–c): Reaction time data and CDF plot based on the performance of SC on the flanker task with linguistic stimuli.

Mentions: Unlike his performance on the flanker task with nonlinguistic stimuli, SC demonstrated a higher overall accuracy on the linguistic flanker task (92.69%), which supports our assumption with respect to his performance on the previous task; that is, the errors were not due to difficulties in the response selection. Although the differences in the mean reaction times were very small (see Table 4), there was a congruency effect for L1 only on the across language incongruent trials. However, the RT distributions of L1 showed an absence of a congruency effect on the fast trials for the across language incongruent condition (see Figure 11(b)). These results indicated that the interference caused by the flankers in L2 while attending to the target in L1 was resolved using proactive control mechanisms because the effect was not sustained throughout the distribution and was only present for the fast trials. For L2, CDF analysis showed a congruency effect on the within language incongruent condition, but only at the 5th percentile level (fast trials) and was not observed throughout the distribution (see Figure 11(c)). These results indicated a greater dependence on proactive control mechanisms because the difference between the congruent and incongruent trials within a particular language (L2) surfaced only on the fast trials.


Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

Dash T, Kar BR - Behav Neurol (2014)

(a–c): Reaction time data and CDF plot based on the performance of SC on the flanker task with linguistic stimuli.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042523&req=5

fig11: (a–c): Reaction time data and CDF plot based on the performance of SC on the flanker task with linguistic stimuli.
Mentions: Unlike his performance on the flanker task with nonlinguistic stimuli, SC demonstrated a higher overall accuracy on the linguistic flanker task (92.69%), which supports our assumption with respect to his performance on the previous task; that is, the errors were not due to difficulties in the response selection. Although the differences in the mean reaction times were very small (see Table 4), there was a congruency effect for L1 only on the across language incongruent trials. However, the RT distributions of L1 showed an absence of a congruency effect on the fast trials for the across language incongruent condition (see Figure 11(b)). These results indicated that the interference caused by the flankers in L2 while attending to the target in L1 was resolved using proactive control mechanisms because the effect was not sustained throughout the distribution and was only present for the fast trials. For L2, CDF analysis showed a congruency effect on the within language incongruent condition, but only at the 5th percentile level (fast trials) and was not observed throughout the distribution (see Figure 11(c)). These results indicated a greater dependence on proactive control mechanisms because the difference between the congruent and incongruent trials within a particular language (L2) surfaced only on the fast trials.

Bottom Line: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control.The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions.The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, Senate Hall Campus, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes.

Methods: Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task).

Results: A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

Conclusion: All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus