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Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

Dash T, Kar BR - Behav Neurol (2014)

Bottom Line: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control.The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions.The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, Senate Hall Campus, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes.

Methods: Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task).

Results: A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

Conclusion: All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a–d): Reaction time data, error analysis, and CDF plot based on the performance of CR on the flanker task with linguistic stimuli.
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fig9: (a–d): Reaction time data, error analysis, and CDF plot based on the performance of CR on the flanker task with linguistic stimuli.

Mentions: CR's performance on the linguistic flanker task showed a congruency effect for L2, whereas there was an absence of the congruency effect for L1 (see Figure 9(a)). The overall errors across all the conditions were greater for L1 compared to L2. L1 showed errors mostly on the congruent trials, whereas L2 showed a greater number of errors on the incongruent trials (see Figure 9(b)). For the language incongruent condition, the congruency effect was observed only for L2 throughout the distribution (see Figure 9(c)). Both L1 and L2 showed a flanker effect on the language incongruent condition on the fast (5th–20th percentile) and slow (70th–95th percentile) trials. Interestingly, similar patterns for the congruency effect for both L1 and L2 on the cross language incongruent condition were observed. The discrepancy in the mean scores for L1 versus L2 with respect to the congruency effect is suggestive of different underlying processes operating for L1 compared to L2. However, this difference was not explained by the CDF plots, which showed similar patterns of performance on the slow and fast trials for both languages (see Figures 9(c) and 9(d)).


Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

Dash T, Kar BR - Behav Neurol (2014)

(a–d): Reaction time data, error analysis, and CDF plot based on the performance of CR on the flanker task with linguistic stimuli.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042523&req=5

fig9: (a–d): Reaction time data, error analysis, and CDF plot based on the performance of CR on the flanker task with linguistic stimuli.
Mentions: CR's performance on the linguistic flanker task showed a congruency effect for L2, whereas there was an absence of the congruency effect for L1 (see Figure 9(a)). The overall errors across all the conditions were greater for L1 compared to L2. L1 showed errors mostly on the congruent trials, whereas L2 showed a greater number of errors on the incongruent trials (see Figure 9(b)). For the language incongruent condition, the congruency effect was observed only for L2 throughout the distribution (see Figure 9(c)). Both L1 and L2 showed a flanker effect on the language incongruent condition on the fast (5th–20th percentile) and slow (70th–95th percentile) trials. Interestingly, similar patterns for the congruency effect for both L1 and L2 on the cross language incongruent condition were observed. The discrepancy in the mean scores for L1 versus L2 with respect to the congruency effect is suggestive of different underlying processes operating for L1 compared to L2. However, this difference was not explained by the CDF plots, which showed similar patterns of performance on the slow and fast trials for both languages (see Figures 9(c) and 9(d)).

Bottom Line: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control.The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions.The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, Senate Hall Campus, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes.

Methods: Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task).

Results: A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

Conclusion: All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus