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Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

Dash T, Kar BR - Behav Neurol (2014)

Bottom Line: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control.The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions.The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, Senate Hall Campus, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes.

Methods: Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task).

Results: A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

Conclusion: All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a–c): Reaction time data, error analysis, and CDF plot based on the performance of CR on the negative priming task.
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fig1: (a–c): Reaction time data, error analysis, and CDF plot based on the performance of CR on the negative priming task.

Mentions: CR's performance on the negative priming task with superimposed line drawings of objects (with reaction times as a measure of performance) suggests the presence of a facilitation effect in the absence of a negative priming effect (see Figure 1(a)). However, error analysis showed a greater number of errors for the ignored repetition trials compared to the control condition, suggesting the presence of a negative priming effect (see Figure 1(b)). In addition, CDF plots further supported these results. CDF curves showed facilitation or a positive priming effect more prominently in the fast trials (i.e., 5th percentile) (see Figure 1(c)). This effect was persistent throughout the distribution except at the 95th percentile level (i.e., slow trials) where the distribution appeared to be very similar across conditions. These results indicated that when the time to respond to a target is less, then the facilitation effect is greater compared to when the time available is more. These results indicated the presence of proactive control in a minimal conflict condition (i.e., attended repetition condition). Similarly, ignored repetition reaction times were faster compared to the control condition throughout the distribution except for the 95th percentile level.


Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

Dash T, Kar BR - Behav Neurol (2014)

(a–c): Reaction time data, error analysis, and CDF plot based on the performance of CR on the negative priming task.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042523&req=5

fig1: (a–c): Reaction time data, error analysis, and CDF plot based on the performance of CR on the negative priming task.
Mentions: CR's performance on the negative priming task with superimposed line drawings of objects (with reaction times as a measure of performance) suggests the presence of a facilitation effect in the absence of a negative priming effect (see Figure 1(a)). However, error analysis showed a greater number of errors for the ignored repetition trials compared to the control condition, suggesting the presence of a negative priming effect (see Figure 1(b)). In addition, CDF plots further supported these results. CDF curves showed facilitation or a positive priming effect more prominently in the fast trials (i.e., 5th percentile) (see Figure 1(c)). This effect was persistent throughout the distribution except at the 95th percentile level (i.e., slow trials) where the distribution appeared to be very similar across conditions. These results indicated that when the time to respond to a target is less, then the facilitation effect is greater compared to when the time available is more. These results indicated the presence of proactive control in a minimal conflict condition (i.e., attended repetition condition). Similarly, ignored repetition reaction times were faster compared to the control condition throughout the distribution except for the 95th percentile level.

Bottom Line: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control.The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions.The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, Senate Hall Campus, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes.

Methods: Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task).

Results: A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms.

Conclusion: All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus