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Planctomycetes and macroalgae, a striking association.

Lage OM, Bondoso J - Front Microbiol (2014)

Bottom Line: Planctomycetes comprise the genera Rhodopirellula, Blastopirellula, and Planctomyces, Phycisphaera and the uncultured class OM190 and some other taxa have only been found in this association.Furthermore, the peptidoglycan-free cell wall of planctomycetes allows them to resist the action of several antimicrobial compounds produced by the macroalgae or other bacteria in the biofilm community that are effective against biofouling by other microorganisms.Despite the increase in our knowledge on the successful planctomycetes-macroalgae association, a great effort to fully understand this interaction is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto Porto, Portugal ; CIMAR/CIIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto Porto, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Planctomycetes are part of the complex microbial biofilm community of a wide range of macroalgae. Recently, some studies began to unveil the great diversity of Planctomycetes present in this microenvironment and the interactions between the two organisms. Culture dependent and independent methods revealed the existence of a great number of species but, so far, only less than 10 species have been isolated. Planctomycetes comprise the genera Rhodopirellula, Blastopirellula, and Planctomyces, Phycisphaera and the uncultured class OM190 and some other taxa have only been found in this association. Several factors favor the colonization of macroalgal surfaces by planctomycetes. Many species possess holdfasts for attachment. The macroalgae secrete various sulfated polysaccharides that are the substrate for the abundant sulfatases produced by planctomycetes. Specificity between planctomycetes and macroalgae seem to exist which may be related to the chemical nature of the polysaccharides produced by each macroalga. Furthermore, the peptidoglycan-free cell wall of planctomycetes allows them to resist the action of several antimicrobial compounds produced by the macroalgae or other bacteria in the biofilm community that are effective against biofouling by other microorganisms. Despite the increase in our knowledge on the successful planctomycetes-macroalgae association, a great effort to fully understand this interaction is needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maximum-Likelihood tree of 16S rRNA gene sequences of planctomycetes associated with macroalgae downloaded from NCBI database. The final set consisted of 116 sequences above 500 bp. Strains in bold represent the isolates from macroalgae described to date. The numbers beside nodes are the percentages for bootstrap analyses; only values above 50% are shown. Scale bar = 0.02 substitutions per 100 nucleotides. The different groups are presented on the right. Anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences were used as outgroup.
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Figure 1: Maximum-Likelihood tree of 16S rRNA gene sequences of planctomycetes associated with macroalgae downloaded from NCBI database. The final set consisted of 116 sequences above 500 bp. Strains in bold represent the isolates from macroalgae described to date. The numbers beside nodes are the percentages for bootstrap analyses; only values above 50% are shown. Scale bar = 0.02 substitutions per 100 nucleotides. The different groups are presented on the right. Anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences were used as outgroup.

Mentions: About 30% of all the studies on macroalgae bacterial communities report the presence of planctomycetes and almost 4% of sequences from these studies belong to the phylum Planctomycetes (Hollants et al., 2013). Planctomycete communities on macroalgae can be highly diverse varying from only one to 24 OTUs at a 97% cut-off in the 16S rRNA gene per macroalgae (Table 1). With the use of specific primers for planctomycetes, Bengtsson and Ovreas (2010) defined 16 OTUs associated with the kelp Laminaria hyperborea, each representing a different species and Bondoso et al. (2013), using PCR-DGGE, identified a total of 21 different OTUs associated with six macroalgae. In a pyrosequencing study, the red macroalga Porphyra umbilicalis was found to harbor 24 different OTUs belonging to planctomycetes (Miranda et al., 2013). In total, more than 60 potential different species of planctomycetes are associated with macroalgae and the majority were not isolated in pure culture (Figure 1). So far, only 10 species were isolated from macroalgae (Winkelmann and Harder, 2009; Bengtsson and Ovreas, 2010; Lage and Bondoso, 2011) on the basis of the 97% cut-off defined for species delineation (Stackebrandt, 2002) of which four were validly described (Fukunaga et al., 2009; Bondoso et al., 2014; Yoon et al., 2014). The communities of planctomycetes comprise mainly members related to the cultured genera Blastopirellula, Rhodopirellula, and Planctomyces (Figure 1) and to the class Phycisphaerae which contains the genera Phycisphaera and Algisphaera. The most abundant taxon reported in culture-independent studies is related to an isolate from Fucus spiralis, strain FC18 (Lage and Bondoso, 2011), and can be found in almost all the macroalgae studied but predominantly in the brown macroalgae Fucus sp. and Laminaria hyperborea. The uncultured class OM190 (SILVA taxonomy), a deeply branching group within the Planctomycetes, is also usually reported as being associated to macroalgae (Figure 1, Table 1).


Planctomycetes and macroalgae, a striking association.

Lage OM, Bondoso J - Front Microbiol (2014)

Maximum-Likelihood tree of 16S rRNA gene sequences of planctomycetes associated with macroalgae downloaded from NCBI database. The final set consisted of 116 sequences above 500 bp. Strains in bold represent the isolates from macroalgae described to date. The numbers beside nodes are the percentages for bootstrap analyses; only values above 50% are shown. Scale bar = 0.02 substitutions per 100 nucleotides. The different groups are presented on the right. Anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences were used as outgroup.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4042473&req=5

Figure 1: Maximum-Likelihood tree of 16S rRNA gene sequences of planctomycetes associated with macroalgae downloaded from NCBI database. The final set consisted of 116 sequences above 500 bp. Strains in bold represent the isolates from macroalgae described to date. The numbers beside nodes are the percentages for bootstrap analyses; only values above 50% are shown. Scale bar = 0.02 substitutions per 100 nucleotides. The different groups are presented on the right. Anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences were used as outgroup.
Mentions: About 30% of all the studies on macroalgae bacterial communities report the presence of planctomycetes and almost 4% of sequences from these studies belong to the phylum Planctomycetes (Hollants et al., 2013). Planctomycete communities on macroalgae can be highly diverse varying from only one to 24 OTUs at a 97% cut-off in the 16S rRNA gene per macroalgae (Table 1). With the use of specific primers for planctomycetes, Bengtsson and Ovreas (2010) defined 16 OTUs associated with the kelp Laminaria hyperborea, each representing a different species and Bondoso et al. (2013), using PCR-DGGE, identified a total of 21 different OTUs associated with six macroalgae. In a pyrosequencing study, the red macroalga Porphyra umbilicalis was found to harbor 24 different OTUs belonging to planctomycetes (Miranda et al., 2013). In total, more than 60 potential different species of planctomycetes are associated with macroalgae and the majority were not isolated in pure culture (Figure 1). So far, only 10 species were isolated from macroalgae (Winkelmann and Harder, 2009; Bengtsson and Ovreas, 2010; Lage and Bondoso, 2011) on the basis of the 97% cut-off defined for species delineation (Stackebrandt, 2002) of which four were validly described (Fukunaga et al., 2009; Bondoso et al., 2014; Yoon et al., 2014). The communities of planctomycetes comprise mainly members related to the cultured genera Blastopirellula, Rhodopirellula, and Planctomyces (Figure 1) and to the class Phycisphaerae which contains the genera Phycisphaera and Algisphaera. The most abundant taxon reported in culture-independent studies is related to an isolate from Fucus spiralis, strain FC18 (Lage and Bondoso, 2011), and can be found in almost all the macroalgae studied but predominantly in the brown macroalgae Fucus sp. and Laminaria hyperborea. The uncultured class OM190 (SILVA taxonomy), a deeply branching group within the Planctomycetes, is also usually reported as being associated to macroalgae (Figure 1, Table 1).

Bottom Line: Planctomycetes comprise the genera Rhodopirellula, Blastopirellula, and Planctomyces, Phycisphaera and the uncultured class OM190 and some other taxa have only been found in this association.Furthermore, the peptidoglycan-free cell wall of planctomycetes allows them to resist the action of several antimicrobial compounds produced by the macroalgae or other bacteria in the biofilm community that are effective against biofouling by other microorganisms.Despite the increase in our knowledge on the successful planctomycetes-macroalgae association, a great effort to fully understand this interaction is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto Porto, Portugal ; CIMAR/CIIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre for Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto Porto, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Planctomycetes are part of the complex microbial biofilm community of a wide range of macroalgae. Recently, some studies began to unveil the great diversity of Planctomycetes present in this microenvironment and the interactions between the two organisms. Culture dependent and independent methods revealed the existence of a great number of species but, so far, only less than 10 species have been isolated. Planctomycetes comprise the genera Rhodopirellula, Blastopirellula, and Planctomyces, Phycisphaera and the uncultured class OM190 and some other taxa have only been found in this association. Several factors favor the colonization of macroalgal surfaces by planctomycetes. Many species possess holdfasts for attachment. The macroalgae secrete various sulfated polysaccharides that are the substrate for the abundant sulfatases produced by planctomycetes. Specificity between planctomycetes and macroalgae seem to exist which may be related to the chemical nature of the polysaccharides produced by each macroalga. Furthermore, the peptidoglycan-free cell wall of planctomycetes allows them to resist the action of several antimicrobial compounds produced by the macroalgae or other bacteria in the biofilm community that are effective against biofouling by other microorganisms. Despite the increase in our knowledge on the successful planctomycetes-macroalgae association, a great effort to fully understand this interaction is needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus