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The effect of carotenoid supplementation on immune system development in juvenile male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus).

McCartney KL, Ligon RA, Butler MW, Denardo DF, McGraw KJ - Front. Zool. (2014)

Bottom Line: Nutrient availability, assimilation, and allocation can have important and lasting effects on the immune system development of growing animals.Though lutein supplementation effectively elevated circulating carotenoid concentrations throughout the developmental period, we found no evidence that carotenoid repletion enhanced immune function at any point.Taken together, our results indicate that body mass and age, but not carotenoid access, may play an important role in immune performance of growing chameleons.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA. russell.ligon@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nutrient availability, assimilation, and allocation can have important and lasting effects on the immune system development of growing animals. Though carotenoid pigments have immunostimulatory properties in many animals, relatively little is known regarding how they influence the immune system during development. Moreover, studies linking carotenoids to health at any life stage have largely been restricted to birds and mammals. We investigated the effects of carotenoid supplementation on multiple aspects of immunity in juvenile veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). We supplemented half of the chameleons with lutein (a xanthophyll carotenoid) for 14 weeks during development and serially measured multiple aspects of immune function, including: agglutination and lysis performance of plasma, wound healing, and plasma nitric oxide concentrations before and after wounding.

Results: Though lutein supplementation effectively elevated circulating carotenoid concentrations throughout the developmental period, we found no evidence that carotenoid repletion enhanced immune function at any point. However, agglutination and lysis scores increased, while baseline nitric oxide levels decreased, as chameleons aged.

Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that body mass and age, but not carotenoid access, may play an important role in immune performance of growing chameleons. Hence, studying well-understood physiological processes in novel taxa can provide new perspectives on alternative physiological processes and nutrient function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Weekly body masses of growing veiled chameleons during development. Measurements for all groups were taken at the same times, but data points are slightly offset for ease of interpretation. The vertical dashed line (at Week 8 of the study) represents the onset of carotenoid supplementation. All chameleons were provided with the same number of food items each day. Family A was significantly more massive than Family B at Week 1 and from Week 12 through Week 22 of the study. Points represent mean values with standard errors calculated from raw data.
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Figure 3: Weekly body masses of growing veiled chameleons during development. Measurements for all groups were taken at the same times, but data points are slightly offset for ease of interpretation. The vertical dashed line (at Week 8 of the study) represents the onset of carotenoid supplementation. All chameleons were provided with the same number of food items each day. Family A was significantly more massive than Family B at Week 1 and from Week 12 through Week 22 of the study. Points represent mean values with standard errors calculated from raw data.

Mentions: Mass did not significantly differ by treatment at any age (all F1,16 < 0.64, all P > 0.4), though family groups differed in the degree to which chameleons gained body mass over time (Week*Family F20,320 = 28.02, P < 0.0001). Mass was significantly different between families at Week 1 (F1,16 = 11.76, P = 0.003). This difference between families did not exist from Week 2 through Week 11 (all F1,16 < 2.33, and all P > 0.146), but at Week 12 a significant difference in mass between families arose that persisted until the end of the study (all F1,16 > 7.87, all P < 0.0127; Figure 3). Overall there was a significant effect of family on mass (F20,320 = 35.11, P < 0.0001), and whenever differences were significant, family A was more massive than family B.


The effect of carotenoid supplementation on immune system development in juvenile male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus).

McCartney KL, Ligon RA, Butler MW, Denardo DF, McGraw KJ - Front. Zool. (2014)

Weekly body masses of growing veiled chameleons during development. Measurements for all groups were taken at the same times, but data points are slightly offset for ease of interpretation. The vertical dashed line (at Week 8 of the study) represents the onset of carotenoid supplementation. All chameleons were provided with the same number of food items each day. Family A was significantly more massive than Family B at Week 1 and from Week 12 through Week 22 of the study. Points represent mean values with standard errors calculated from raw data.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4022081&req=5

Figure 3: Weekly body masses of growing veiled chameleons during development. Measurements for all groups were taken at the same times, but data points are slightly offset for ease of interpretation. The vertical dashed line (at Week 8 of the study) represents the onset of carotenoid supplementation. All chameleons were provided with the same number of food items each day. Family A was significantly more massive than Family B at Week 1 and from Week 12 through Week 22 of the study. Points represent mean values with standard errors calculated from raw data.
Mentions: Mass did not significantly differ by treatment at any age (all F1,16 < 0.64, all P > 0.4), though family groups differed in the degree to which chameleons gained body mass over time (Week*Family F20,320 = 28.02, P < 0.0001). Mass was significantly different between families at Week 1 (F1,16 = 11.76, P = 0.003). This difference between families did not exist from Week 2 through Week 11 (all F1,16 < 2.33, and all P > 0.146), but at Week 12 a significant difference in mass between families arose that persisted until the end of the study (all F1,16 > 7.87, all P < 0.0127; Figure 3). Overall there was a significant effect of family on mass (F20,320 = 35.11, P < 0.0001), and whenever differences were significant, family A was more massive than family B.

Bottom Line: Nutrient availability, assimilation, and allocation can have important and lasting effects on the immune system development of growing animals.Though lutein supplementation effectively elevated circulating carotenoid concentrations throughout the developmental period, we found no evidence that carotenoid repletion enhanced immune function at any point.Taken together, our results indicate that body mass and age, but not carotenoid access, may play an important role in immune performance of growing chameleons.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA. russell.ligon@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nutrient availability, assimilation, and allocation can have important and lasting effects on the immune system development of growing animals. Though carotenoid pigments have immunostimulatory properties in many animals, relatively little is known regarding how they influence the immune system during development. Moreover, studies linking carotenoids to health at any life stage have largely been restricted to birds and mammals. We investigated the effects of carotenoid supplementation on multiple aspects of immunity in juvenile veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). We supplemented half of the chameleons with lutein (a xanthophyll carotenoid) for 14 weeks during development and serially measured multiple aspects of immune function, including: agglutination and lysis performance of plasma, wound healing, and plasma nitric oxide concentrations before and after wounding.

Results: Though lutein supplementation effectively elevated circulating carotenoid concentrations throughout the developmental period, we found no evidence that carotenoid repletion enhanced immune function at any point. However, agglutination and lysis scores increased, while baseline nitric oxide levels decreased, as chameleons aged.

Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that body mass and age, but not carotenoid access, may play an important role in immune performance of growing chameleons. Hence, studying well-understood physiological processes in novel taxa can provide new perspectives on alternative physiological processes and nutrient function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus