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Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs.

Song SD, Barker SC, Shao R - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Bottom Line: These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform.Each minichromosome is 3.5-5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions.The current study indicates that inter-minichromosome recombination plays a major role in generating the variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and provides novel insights into the evolution of fragmented mitochondrial genomes in the blood-sucking lice.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4556, Australia. ssong1@usc.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and the gene content and gene arrangement of each minichromosome are stable within the genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini.

Methods: We used a PCR-based strategy to amplify four mitochondrial minichromosomes in near full-length, and then amplify the entire coding regions of all of the nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse. These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform.

Results: We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes typical of bilateral animals in the horse louse, Haematopinus asini; these genes are on nine circular minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions. Six of the nine minichromosomes of the horse louse have their counterparts in the pig lice with the same gene content and gene arrangement. However, the gene content and arrangement of the other three minichromosomes of the horse louse, including R-nad4L-rrnS-C, are different from that of the other three minichromosomes of the pig lice.

Conclusions: Comparison between the horse louse and the pig lice revealed variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes within the genus Haematopinus, which can be accounted for by gene translocation events between minichromosomes. The current study indicates that inter-minichromosome recombination plays a major role in generating the variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and provides novel insights into the evolution of fragmented mitochondrial genomes in the blood-sucking lice.

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Alignment of the full-length non-coding regions of nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. B2448F and B2448R are the primers used to amplify the entire coding regions of all mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse.
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Figure 3: Alignment of the full-length non-coding regions of nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. B2448F and B2448R are the primers used to amplify the entire coding regions of all mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse.

Mentions: We sequenced the non-coding regions of all of the nine mt minichromosomes of the horse louse in full length, which range from 2,005 bp to 3,264 bp (Figure 3). The horse louse is the first species of sucking lice for which the full-length non-coding regions of all mt minichromosomes were sequenced. The horse louse has the longest non-coding regions among the sucking lice known; previously the longest non-coding region was 2,370 bp, noted in the pig lice [15]. As in the human lice and the pig lice, there is an AT-rich motif (45 bp, 100% A and T) in the non-coding region upstream the 5′-end of coding region and a GC-rich motif (78 bp, 60% C and G) downstream the 3′-end of the coding region (Figure 3). The size variation among the nine non-coding regions of the horse louse is due to size variation in the section upstream the coding region from the AT-rich motif to the primer B2448F (Figure 3). Excluding this section, the non-coding regions of the minichromosomes have ~ 96% pairwise identity to each other.


Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs.

Song SD, Barker SC, Shao R - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Alignment of the full-length non-coding regions of nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. B2448F and B2448R are the primers used to amplify the entire coding regions of all mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4022054&req=5

Figure 3: Alignment of the full-length non-coding regions of nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. B2448F and B2448R are the primers used to amplify the entire coding regions of all mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse.
Mentions: We sequenced the non-coding regions of all of the nine mt minichromosomes of the horse louse in full length, which range from 2,005 bp to 3,264 bp (Figure 3). The horse louse is the first species of sucking lice for which the full-length non-coding regions of all mt minichromosomes were sequenced. The horse louse has the longest non-coding regions among the sucking lice known; previously the longest non-coding region was 2,370 bp, noted in the pig lice [15]. As in the human lice and the pig lice, there is an AT-rich motif (45 bp, 100% A and T) in the non-coding region upstream the 5′-end of coding region and a GC-rich motif (78 bp, 60% C and G) downstream the 3′-end of the coding region (Figure 3). The size variation among the nine non-coding regions of the horse louse is due to size variation in the section upstream the coding region from the AT-rich motif to the primer B2448F (Figure 3). Excluding this section, the non-coding regions of the minichromosomes have ~ 96% pairwise identity to each other.

Bottom Line: These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform.Each minichromosome is 3.5-5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions.The current study indicates that inter-minichromosome recombination plays a major role in generating the variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and provides novel insights into the evolution of fragmented mitochondrial genomes in the blood-sucking lice.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: GeneCology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4556, Australia. ssong1@usc.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and the gene content and gene arrangement of each minichromosome are stable within the genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini.

Methods: We used a PCR-based strategy to amplify four mitochondrial minichromosomes in near full-length, and then amplify the entire coding regions of all of the nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse. These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform.

Results: We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes typical of bilateral animals in the horse louse, Haematopinus asini; these genes are on nine circular minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions. Six of the nine minichromosomes of the horse louse have their counterparts in the pig lice with the same gene content and gene arrangement. However, the gene content and arrangement of the other three minichromosomes of the horse louse, including R-nad4L-rrnS-C, are different from that of the other three minichromosomes of the pig lice.

Conclusions: Comparison between the horse louse and the pig lice revealed variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes within the genus Haematopinus, which can be accounted for by gene translocation events between minichromosomes. The current study indicates that inter-minichromosome recombination plays a major role in generating the variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and provides novel insights into the evolution of fragmented mitochondrial genomes in the blood-sucking lice.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus