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Color distribution differences in the tongue in sleep disorder.

Jung CJ, Nam JH, Jeon YJ, Kim KH - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Results.The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Engineering R&D Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 461-24 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L∗, a∗, b∗) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Example of areas corresponding to the color ranges of the seven variables in a tongue image. The areas were described using white pixels in the white tongue image. A dark region in the root of the tongue and a light reflected area were excluded from the analysis.
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fig3: Example of areas corresponding to the color ranges of the seven variables in a tongue image. The areas were described using white pixels in the white tongue image. A dark region in the root of the tongue and a light reflected area were excluded from the analysis.

Mentions: The color properties of the tongue image depend on the state of the tongue body and the coating. The tongue coating is a fur-like substance that covers the surface of the tongue, and its color differs from the color of the tongue body. The seven variables of the TDCH included the color ranges of both the tongue body and the tongue coating because the color ranges were derived from the color distribution of the entire tongue area. The results of the difference analyses between the two groups revealed that V2, V3, and V4 with low a* ranges tended to contrast with V5, V6, and V7 with high a* ranges. The contrasting trends of these variables imply that there are two differences in the tongue state between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. The first difference is the proportion of the tongue coating area. The a* dimension of the TDCH, which describes the intensity of the red color, is one of the crucial parameters of the tongue body and coating [12]. Figure 3 shows areas corresponding to the color ranges of the seven variables in a tongue image. The seven areas in Figure 3 indicate that V1, V2, and V4 were related to the proportion of the tongue coating area, and V5, V6, and V7, whose a* ranges were higher than those of the other variables, represent the tongue body area. The trends of the relationships between the V1, V2, and V4 and their corresponding tongue areas appeared similar in all subjects because the optical properties between the tongue surface and substance of the tongue coating were different. The values of V2 and V4 were larger in the sleep disorder group than in the normal group, which indicates that the area proportion of the tongue coating in the sleep disorder group was higher than that in the normal group. The values of V5 and V7, which represent the tongue body, in the sleep disorder group were smaller than those in the normal group because of the high proportion of the tongue coating area. The second difference in the tongue state between the two groups was the color of the tongue body. Figure 3 shows that three color ranges of V3, V5, and V7 were observed in the tongue body. The a* and L* ranges of V7 were the highest of the seven variables, and the a* range of V3 was lower than that of V5 and V7. V3 appeared to be related to the pale red color of the tongue body based on the red intensity, whereas V7 appeared to be related to a bright and intense red tongue body. The ratio between the V3 and V7 values depended on the degree of the red intensity of the tongue body. The V7 value was larger in the normal group than in the sleep disorder group. Table 6 shows the difference in the V7-to-V3 ratio (V7/V3) between the two groups. The ratio in the normal group was higher than that in the sleep disorder group, which suggests that the red intensity of the tongue body in the normal group was higher than that in the sleep disorder group. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the proportion of tongue coating area in the sleep disorder group was higher than that in normal group.


Color distribution differences in the tongue in sleep disorder.

Jung CJ, Nam JH, Jeon YJ, Kim KH - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Example of areas corresponding to the color ranges of the seven variables in a tongue image. The areas were described using white pixels in the white tongue image. A dark region in the root of the tongue and a light reflected area were excluded from the analysis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4020389&req=5

fig3: Example of areas corresponding to the color ranges of the seven variables in a tongue image. The areas were described using white pixels in the white tongue image. A dark region in the root of the tongue and a light reflected area were excluded from the analysis.
Mentions: The color properties of the tongue image depend on the state of the tongue body and the coating. The tongue coating is a fur-like substance that covers the surface of the tongue, and its color differs from the color of the tongue body. The seven variables of the TDCH included the color ranges of both the tongue body and the tongue coating because the color ranges were derived from the color distribution of the entire tongue area. The results of the difference analyses between the two groups revealed that V2, V3, and V4 with low a* ranges tended to contrast with V5, V6, and V7 with high a* ranges. The contrasting trends of these variables imply that there are two differences in the tongue state between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. The first difference is the proportion of the tongue coating area. The a* dimension of the TDCH, which describes the intensity of the red color, is one of the crucial parameters of the tongue body and coating [12]. Figure 3 shows areas corresponding to the color ranges of the seven variables in a tongue image. The seven areas in Figure 3 indicate that V1, V2, and V4 were related to the proportion of the tongue coating area, and V5, V6, and V7, whose a* ranges were higher than those of the other variables, represent the tongue body area. The trends of the relationships between the V1, V2, and V4 and their corresponding tongue areas appeared similar in all subjects because the optical properties between the tongue surface and substance of the tongue coating were different. The values of V2 and V4 were larger in the sleep disorder group than in the normal group, which indicates that the area proportion of the tongue coating in the sleep disorder group was higher than that in the normal group. The values of V5 and V7, which represent the tongue body, in the sleep disorder group were smaller than those in the normal group because of the high proportion of the tongue coating area. The second difference in the tongue state between the two groups was the color of the tongue body. Figure 3 shows that three color ranges of V3, V5, and V7 were observed in the tongue body. The a* and L* ranges of V7 were the highest of the seven variables, and the a* range of V3 was lower than that of V5 and V7. V3 appeared to be related to the pale red color of the tongue body based on the red intensity, whereas V7 appeared to be related to a bright and intense red tongue body. The ratio between the V3 and V7 values depended on the degree of the red intensity of the tongue body. The V7 value was larger in the normal group than in the sleep disorder group. Table 6 shows the difference in the V7-to-V3 ratio (V7/V3) between the two groups. The ratio in the normal group was higher than that in the sleep disorder group, which suggests that the red intensity of the tongue body in the normal group was higher than that in the sleep disorder group. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the proportion of tongue coating area in the sleep disorder group was higher than that in normal group.

Bottom Line: Results.The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Engineering R&D Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 461-24 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L∗, a∗, b∗) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus