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Color distribution differences in the tongue in sleep disorder.

Jung CJ, Nam JH, Jeon YJ, Kim KH - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Methods.Results.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Engineering R&D Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 461-24 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L∗, a∗, b∗) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Methods of color image analysis. (a) Example of the feedback guidelines on the monitor, which are shown to a subject during the image acquisition process. (b) Examples of the dark and high-luminance regions in the acquired images. Green pixels indicate high-luminance regions with L* values over 85, and blue pixels indicate dark regions with L* values under 30. (c) A color checker in the tongue image for the color correction analysis. The left 6 samples and right 6 samples were used for achromatic and chromatic color correction, respectively. (d) Average of the two-dimensional color histogram of 454 subjects. Seven color ranges (V1–V7) were selected for statistical analysis.
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fig1: Methods of color image analysis. (a) Example of the feedback guidelines on the monitor, which are shown to a subject during the image acquisition process. (b) Examples of the dark and high-luminance regions in the acquired images. Green pixels indicate high-luminance regions with L* values over 85, and blue pixels indicate dark regions with L* values under 30. (c) A color checker in the tongue image for the color correction analysis. The left 6 samples and right 6 samples were used for achromatic and chromatic color correction, respectively. (d) Average of the two-dimensional color histogram of 454 subjects. Seven color ranges (V1–V7) were selected for statistical analysis.

Mentions: From June 2012 to April 2013, 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited from the Cheonan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors independently interviewed subjects about current sleep problems to assess whether they had a sleep disorder. The sleep disorder group was defined as subjects with a sleep disorder, based on agreement between the two Korean oriental medicine doctors (n = 52), and subjects with no sleep disorder were classified into the normal group (n = 402). A tongue image was acquired after the diagnostic process using a tongue diagnosis system (TDS), which provides feedback during the image acquisition process and a color checker for color correction, as shown in Figures 1(a) and 1(c) [3]. The subjects abstained from eating and drinking for 2 hours before the experiment to prevent color changes of the tongue body and coating. Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects in the normal group were rerecruited for a second experiment to observe tongue color changes according to the presence of a sleep disorder in the same subject. Eighteen of the 153 subjects showed a sleep disorder change, and these subjects were used for a paired comparison analysis.


Color distribution differences in the tongue in sleep disorder.

Jung CJ, Nam JH, Jeon YJ, Kim KH - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Methods of color image analysis. (a) Example of the feedback guidelines on the monitor, which are shown to a subject during the image acquisition process. (b) Examples of the dark and high-luminance regions in the acquired images. Green pixels indicate high-luminance regions with L* values over 85, and blue pixels indicate dark regions with L* values under 30. (c) A color checker in the tongue image for the color correction analysis. The left 6 samples and right 6 samples were used for achromatic and chromatic color correction, respectively. (d) Average of the two-dimensional color histogram of 454 subjects. Seven color ranges (V1–V7) were selected for statistical analysis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4020389&req=5

fig1: Methods of color image analysis. (a) Example of the feedback guidelines on the monitor, which are shown to a subject during the image acquisition process. (b) Examples of the dark and high-luminance regions in the acquired images. Green pixels indicate high-luminance regions with L* values over 85, and blue pixels indicate dark regions with L* values under 30. (c) A color checker in the tongue image for the color correction analysis. The left 6 samples and right 6 samples were used for achromatic and chromatic color correction, respectively. (d) Average of the two-dimensional color histogram of 454 subjects. Seven color ranges (V1–V7) were selected for statistical analysis.
Mentions: From June 2012 to April 2013, 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited from the Cheonan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors independently interviewed subjects about current sleep problems to assess whether they had a sleep disorder. The sleep disorder group was defined as subjects with a sleep disorder, based on agreement between the two Korean oriental medicine doctors (n = 52), and subjects with no sleep disorder were classified into the normal group (n = 402). A tongue image was acquired after the diagnostic process using a tongue diagnosis system (TDS), which provides feedback during the image acquisition process and a color checker for color correction, as shown in Figures 1(a) and 1(c) [3]. The subjects abstained from eating and drinking for 2 hours before the experiment to prevent color changes of the tongue body and coating. Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects in the normal group were rerecruited for a second experiment to observe tongue color changes according to the presence of a sleep disorder in the same subject. Eighteen of the 153 subjects showed a sleep disorder change, and these subjects were used for a paired comparison analysis.

Bottom Line: Methods.Results.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Engineering R&D Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 461-24 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Introduction. According to traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) theory, the tongue represents conditions of qi and blood. In the present study, the relationship between the tongue and the qi and blood in conditions with no apparent disease was investigated. Methods. A total of 454 elderly people with no apparent disease were recruited. Two Korean oriental medicine doctors classified subjects into a normal group (n = 402) and a sleep disorder group (n = 52). Three to five weeks after the experiment, 153 subjects were rerecruited for a second experiment. Two-dimensional color histograms, whose seven variables represent the color distribution in Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1976 (L∗, a∗, b∗) color space, were produced from tongue images. Results. The color of the tongue body in the sleep disorder group appeared paler than that in the normal group, and the tongue coating in the normal group was less widely distributed compared with that in the sleep disorder group. The differences in tongue color between the normal at first experiment and sleep disorder at second experiment conditions were similar to the differences between the normal and the sleep disorder groups. Conclusions. The tongue states in the sleep disorder group indicate a qi and blood deficiency according to TEAM theory.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus