Limits...
Human health risk analysis from disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking and bathing water of some Indian cities.

Mishra BK, Gupta SK, Sinha A - J Environ Health Sci Eng (2014)

Bottom Line: The corresponding lifetime cancer risk of the formed THMs to human beings was estimated by the USEPA and IRIS method as per Indian population.The total cancer risk reached 8.99 E-04 and 8.92 E-04 for males and females, respectively, the highest risk from THMs seems to be from the inhalation route followed by ingestion and dermal contacts.Results reveals that water containing THMs of the selected water treatment plant of the eastern part of India was unsafe in terms of risk evaluation through inhalation and ingestion, while dermal route of risk was found very close to permissible limit of USEPA.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Human health risk assessment from exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) during drinking and bathing water vary from country to country as per life expectancy, body mass index, water consumption pattern and individual concentration of DBPs component, etc.

Methods: Present study considered average direct water intake per person for adult males and females as 4 & 3 L/day, respectively as per Indian literature for risk evaluation from another component of pollutant. While other important factor like average life expectancy, body weight & body surface area for male and female were considered 64 & 67 years, 51.9 & 45.4 Kg and 1.54 & 1.38 m(2) respectively as per Indian Council of Medical Research and WHO report. The corresponding lifetime cancer risk of the formed THMs to human beings was estimated by the USEPA and IRIS method as per Indian population.

Results: The total cancer risk reached 8.99 E-04 and 8.92 E-04 for males and females, respectively, the highest risk from THMs seems to be from the inhalation route followed by ingestion and dermal contacts.

Conclusions: The multipath way evaluations of lifetime cancer risks for THMs exposure through ingestion, dermal absorption, and inhalation exposure were examined at the highest degree of danger. Results reveals that water containing THMs of the selected water treatment plant of the eastern part of India was unsafe in terms of risk evaluation through inhalation and ingestion, while dermal route of risk was found very close to permissible limit of USEPA. Sensitivity analysis shows that every input parameter is sole responsible for total risk potential, whereas exposure duration playing important role for estimation of total risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of WTP in selected region of Jharkhand and West Bengal.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4020354&req=5

Figure 1: Location of WTP in selected region of Jharkhand and West Bengal.

Mentions: Human health risk analysis from disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking and bathing purpose is based on the data collected from eight different water treatment plant located in Jharkhand and West Bengal namely BTPS water treatment plant, MADA water treatment plant, CTPS water treatment plant, Maithon water treatment plant, Indira Gandhi water treatment plant, TISCO water treatment plant, ADDA water treatment plant and Swarnrekha water treatment plant during the period 2012–13 as Figure 1. Present study explored the exposure assessment from major carcinogenic THMs in terms of Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane and Dichlorobromomethane as a total THMs due to direct and indirect intake of water. Bromoform component of THM was not considered due to no deduction from drinking water. Exposure and risk assessment was carried out by IRIS Integrated Risk Information System (USEPA, 2007) based on THMs exposure from oral ingestion, dermal adsorption and inhalation exposure. Present study considered average direct water intake as per Chowdhary study for risk evaluation from arsenic contamination in drinking water of the West Bengal area [22]. Consumption pattern was made as per Indian literature for peak risk assessment specifically closed to study area, on the basis that the ingestion rate was considered 4 & 3 L/day per person for adult males and females, respectively. While average life expectancy, body weight & body surface area for male and female were considered 64 & 67 years, 51.9 & 45.4 Kg and 1.54 & 1.38 m2 respectively [23,24]. Input parameter for risk exposure was considered as per Table 1.


Human health risk analysis from disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking and bathing water of some Indian cities.

Mishra BK, Gupta SK, Sinha A - J Environ Health Sci Eng (2014)

Location of WTP in selected region of Jharkhand and West Bengal.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4020354&req=5

Figure 1: Location of WTP in selected region of Jharkhand and West Bengal.
Mentions: Human health risk analysis from disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking and bathing purpose is based on the data collected from eight different water treatment plant located in Jharkhand and West Bengal namely BTPS water treatment plant, MADA water treatment plant, CTPS water treatment plant, Maithon water treatment plant, Indira Gandhi water treatment plant, TISCO water treatment plant, ADDA water treatment plant and Swarnrekha water treatment plant during the period 2012–13 as Figure 1. Present study explored the exposure assessment from major carcinogenic THMs in terms of Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane and Dichlorobromomethane as a total THMs due to direct and indirect intake of water. Bromoform component of THM was not considered due to no deduction from drinking water. Exposure and risk assessment was carried out by IRIS Integrated Risk Information System (USEPA, 2007) based on THMs exposure from oral ingestion, dermal adsorption and inhalation exposure. Present study considered average direct water intake as per Chowdhary study for risk evaluation from arsenic contamination in drinking water of the West Bengal area [22]. Consumption pattern was made as per Indian literature for peak risk assessment specifically closed to study area, on the basis that the ingestion rate was considered 4 & 3 L/day per person for adult males and females, respectively. While average life expectancy, body weight & body surface area for male and female were considered 64 & 67 years, 51.9 & 45.4 Kg and 1.54 & 1.38 m2 respectively [23,24]. Input parameter for risk exposure was considered as per Table 1.

Bottom Line: The corresponding lifetime cancer risk of the formed THMs to human beings was estimated by the USEPA and IRIS method as per Indian population.The total cancer risk reached 8.99 E-04 and 8.92 E-04 for males and females, respectively, the highest risk from THMs seems to be from the inhalation route followed by ingestion and dermal contacts.Results reveals that water containing THMs of the selected water treatment plant of the eastern part of India was unsafe in terms of risk evaluation through inhalation and ingestion, while dermal route of risk was found very close to permissible limit of USEPA.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: Human health risk assessment from exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) during drinking and bathing water vary from country to country as per life expectancy, body mass index, water consumption pattern and individual concentration of DBPs component, etc.

Methods: Present study considered average direct water intake per person for adult males and females as 4 & 3 L/day, respectively as per Indian literature for risk evaluation from another component of pollutant. While other important factor like average life expectancy, body weight & body surface area for male and female were considered 64 & 67 years, 51.9 & 45.4 Kg and 1.54 & 1.38 m(2) respectively as per Indian Council of Medical Research and WHO report. The corresponding lifetime cancer risk of the formed THMs to human beings was estimated by the USEPA and IRIS method as per Indian population.

Results: The total cancer risk reached 8.99 E-04 and 8.92 E-04 for males and females, respectively, the highest risk from THMs seems to be from the inhalation route followed by ingestion and dermal contacts.

Conclusions: The multipath way evaluations of lifetime cancer risks for THMs exposure through ingestion, dermal absorption, and inhalation exposure were examined at the highest degree of danger. Results reveals that water containing THMs of the selected water treatment plant of the eastern part of India was unsafe in terms of risk evaluation through inhalation and ingestion, while dermal route of risk was found very close to permissible limit of USEPA. Sensitivity analysis shows that every input parameter is sole responsible for total risk potential, whereas exposure duration playing important role for estimation of total risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus