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On the track of transfer cell formation by specialized plant-parasitic nematodes.

Rodiuc N, Vieira P, Banora MY, de Almeida Engler J - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: In both cases, these nematodes are able to remarkably maneuver and reprogram plant host cells.In this review we will discuss the structure, function and formation of these specialized multinucleate cells that act as nutrient transfer cells accumulating and synthesizing components needed for survival and successful offspring of plant-parasitic nematodes.Plant cells with transfer-like functions are also a renowned subject of interest involving still poorly understood molecular and cellular transport processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Interação Molecular Planta-Praga, Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, PqEB Brasília, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Transfer cells are ubiquitous plant cells that play an important role in plant development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. They are highly specialized and differentiated cells playing a central role in the acquisition, distribution and exchange of nutrients. Their unique structural traits are characterized by augmented ingrowths of invaginated secondary wall material, unsheathed by an amplified area of plasma membrane enriched in a suite of solute transporters. Similar morphological features can be perceived in vascular root feeding cells induced by sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes, such as root-knot and cyst nematodes, in a wide range of plant hosts. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, these obligatory biotrophic plant pathogens engage different approaches when reprogramming root cells into giant cells or syncytia, respectively. Both nematode feeding-cells types will serve as the main source of nutrients until the end of the nematode life cycle. In both cases, these nematodes are able to remarkably maneuver and reprogram plant host cells. In this review we will discuss the structure, function and formation of these specialized multinucleate cells that act as nutrient transfer cells accumulating and synthesizing components needed for survival and successful offspring of plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant cells with transfer-like functions are also a renowned subject of interest involving still poorly understood molecular and cellular transport processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic view of nematode feeding transfer-cells induced by plant-parasitic nematodes. (A) Giant cells induced by RKN show cell wall thickenings with invaginations (blue arrow) often at the proximity of xylem vessels. Plasmodesmata (red arrow) also connect giant cells with phloem cells to facilitate solute transfer and may connect NCs. (B) Syncytium induced by a CN show cell wall thickenings with invaginations (blue arrow) often at the proximity of xylem vessels. Plasmodesmata (red arrow) also connect a syncytium with phloem cells to facilitate solute transfer and may connect NCs. Wall stubs are the result of cell dissolution of several root cells that fused to the syncytium itself. Asterisk, giant cell; X, xylem; S, syncytium.
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Figure 1: Schematic view of nematode feeding transfer-cells induced by plant-parasitic nematodes. (A) Giant cells induced by RKN show cell wall thickenings with invaginations (blue arrow) often at the proximity of xylem vessels. Plasmodesmata (red arrow) also connect giant cells with phloem cells to facilitate solute transfer and may connect NCs. (B) Syncytium induced by a CN show cell wall thickenings with invaginations (blue arrow) often at the proximity of xylem vessels. Plasmodesmata (red arrow) also connect a syncytium with phloem cells to facilitate solute transfer and may connect NCs. Wall stubs are the result of cell dissolution of several root cells that fused to the syncytium itself. Asterisk, giant cell; X, xylem; S, syncytium.

Mentions: Infection of plant roots by plant-parasitic nematodes also lead to the development of root swellings containing specialized host-derived feeding structures, with which nematodes acquire nutrients. The most studied specialized feeding sites are induced by root-knot (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst (CN, Globodera spp., Heterodera spp.) nematodes, designated giant cells and syncytia, respectively (Jones and Northcote, 1972a,b). However, other minor economic species belonging to other taxa, such as Rotylenchulus spp., Nacobbus spp., and Xiphinema spp., are also able to induce specialized feeding sites in the host roots. In the case of RKN and CN, both feeding-cell types have the function to feed the pathogen (Jones and Northcote, 1972a,b; Schemes in Figures 1A,B). Products secreted by nematodes through their stylet induce the differentiation of root cells into feeding structures and the content of this secretion remains largely unidentified (Mitchum et al., 2013).


On the track of transfer cell formation by specialized plant-parasitic nematodes.

Rodiuc N, Vieira P, Banora MY, de Almeida Engler J - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Schematic view of nematode feeding transfer-cells induced by plant-parasitic nematodes. (A) Giant cells induced by RKN show cell wall thickenings with invaginations (blue arrow) often at the proximity of xylem vessels. Plasmodesmata (red arrow) also connect giant cells with phloem cells to facilitate solute transfer and may connect NCs. (B) Syncytium induced by a CN show cell wall thickenings with invaginations (blue arrow) often at the proximity of xylem vessels. Plasmodesmata (red arrow) also connect a syncytium with phloem cells to facilitate solute transfer and may connect NCs. Wall stubs are the result of cell dissolution of several root cells that fused to the syncytium itself. Asterisk, giant cell; X, xylem; S, syncytium.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4017147&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic view of nematode feeding transfer-cells induced by plant-parasitic nematodes. (A) Giant cells induced by RKN show cell wall thickenings with invaginations (blue arrow) often at the proximity of xylem vessels. Plasmodesmata (red arrow) also connect giant cells with phloem cells to facilitate solute transfer and may connect NCs. (B) Syncytium induced by a CN show cell wall thickenings with invaginations (blue arrow) often at the proximity of xylem vessels. Plasmodesmata (red arrow) also connect a syncytium with phloem cells to facilitate solute transfer and may connect NCs. Wall stubs are the result of cell dissolution of several root cells that fused to the syncytium itself. Asterisk, giant cell; X, xylem; S, syncytium.
Mentions: Infection of plant roots by plant-parasitic nematodes also lead to the development of root swellings containing specialized host-derived feeding structures, with which nematodes acquire nutrients. The most studied specialized feeding sites are induced by root-knot (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst (CN, Globodera spp., Heterodera spp.) nematodes, designated giant cells and syncytia, respectively (Jones and Northcote, 1972a,b). However, other minor economic species belonging to other taxa, such as Rotylenchulus spp., Nacobbus spp., and Xiphinema spp., are also able to induce specialized feeding sites in the host roots. In the case of RKN and CN, both feeding-cell types have the function to feed the pathogen (Jones and Northcote, 1972a,b; Schemes in Figures 1A,B). Products secreted by nematodes through their stylet induce the differentiation of root cells into feeding structures and the content of this secretion remains largely unidentified (Mitchum et al., 2013).

Bottom Line: In both cases, these nematodes are able to remarkably maneuver and reprogram plant host cells.In this review we will discuss the structure, function and formation of these specialized multinucleate cells that act as nutrient transfer cells accumulating and synthesizing components needed for survival and successful offspring of plant-parasitic nematodes.Plant cells with transfer-like functions are also a renowned subject of interest involving still poorly understood molecular and cellular transport processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Interação Molecular Planta-Praga, Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, PqEB Brasília, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Transfer cells are ubiquitous plant cells that play an important role in plant development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. They are highly specialized and differentiated cells playing a central role in the acquisition, distribution and exchange of nutrients. Their unique structural traits are characterized by augmented ingrowths of invaginated secondary wall material, unsheathed by an amplified area of plasma membrane enriched in a suite of solute transporters. Similar morphological features can be perceived in vascular root feeding cells induced by sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes, such as root-knot and cyst nematodes, in a wide range of plant hosts. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, these obligatory biotrophic plant pathogens engage different approaches when reprogramming root cells into giant cells or syncytia, respectively. Both nematode feeding-cells types will serve as the main source of nutrients until the end of the nematode life cycle. In both cases, these nematodes are able to remarkably maneuver and reprogram plant host cells. In this review we will discuss the structure, function and formation of these specialized multinucleate cells that act as nutrient transfer cells accumulating and synthesizing components needed for survival and successful offspring of plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant cells with transfer-like functions are also a renowned subject of interest involving still poorly understood molecular and cellular transport processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus