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Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome.

Hänel C, Pieperhoff P, Hentschel B, Amunts K, Kuhlen T - Front Neuroinform (2014)

Bottom Line: Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges.The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception.We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: JARA - High Performance Computing, IT Center - Computational Science and Engineering, Computer Science Department, Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS) can provide not only information about the localization and distribution of the volume loss, but also helps to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. The visualization of such medical imaging data is often based on 2D sections, because they show both internal and external structures in one image. Spatial information, however, is lost. 3D visualization of imaging data is capable to solve this problem, but it faces the difficulty that more internally located structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges. In the first design, brain anatomy is displayed semi-transparently; it is supplemented by an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation, and the volumetric data of volume loss. The second design is guided by the principle of importance-driven volume rendering: A direct line-of-sight to the relevant structures in the deeper parts of the brain is provided by cutting out a frustum-like piece of brain tissue. The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception. We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Determination of the local depth value in the cutout. Left: Use depth of PV1 as the closest texel of the VOI's depth texture to the ray entry point PR. Middle:PV2 is the most straight aligned texel in relation to PR. Right: A darker color in the VOI depicts a higher depth value. PV is the closest texel to PR and is used to calculate the distance to the VOI, but PVd has the highest depth value in distance d around PR, and is utilized as depth value.
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Figure 4: Determination of the local depth value in the cutout. Left: Use depth of PV1 as the closest texel of the VOI's depth texture to the ray entry point PR. Middle:PV2 is the most straight aligned texel in relation to PR. Right: A darker color in the VOI depicts a higher depth value. PV is the closest texel to PR and is used to calculate the distance to the VOI, but PVd has the highest depth value in distance d around PR, and is utilized as depth value.

Mentions: In the second rendering pass, the cutout was defined. To find the best definition of the top surface of the frustum with respect to the best information retrieval and smoothness, three different implementations were tested. The first two approaches of the top surface definition varied only in the determination of the texel PV ∈ TV that is used as reference point for further calculations (cf. Figure 4 left, middle). In the first case a vector was sought, where PR ∈ TR was the current ray entry point and PV1 ∈ TV is defined by the closest texel of TV with la > 0, within a maximum distance d in X- and Y-direction of TV. Therefore, the algorithm iterated over all texels of TV from −d to +d distance in X- and Y-direction starting from the texel with the same texel coordinates as PR.


Interactive 3D visualization of structural changes in the brain of a person with corticobasal syndrome.

Hänel C, Pieperhoff P, Hentschel B, Amunts K, Kuhlen T - Front Neuroinform (2014)

Determination of the local depth value in the cutout. Left: Use depth of PV1 as the closest texel of the VOI's depth texture to the ray entry point PR. Middle:PV2 is the most straight aligned texel in relation to PR. Right: A darker color in the VOI depicts a higher depth value. PV is the closest texel to PR and is used to calculate the distance to the VOI, but PVd has the highest depth value in distance d around PR, and is utilized as depth value.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4017140&req=5

Figure 4: Determination of the local depth value in the cutout. Left: Use depth of PV1 as the closest texel of the VOI's depth texture to the ray entry point PR. Middle:PV2 is the most straight aligned texel in relation to PR. Right: A darker color in the VOI depicts a higher depth value. PV is the closest texel to PR and is used to calculate the distance to the VOI, but PVd has the highest depth value in distance d around PR, and is utilized as depth value.
Mentions: In the second rendering pass, the cutout was defined. To find the best definition of the top surface of the frustum with respect to the best information retrieval and smoothness, three different implementations were tested. The first two approaches of the top surface definition varied only in the determination of the texel PV ∈ TV that is used as reference point for further calculations (cf. Figure 4 left, middle). In the first case a vector was sought, where PR ∈ TR was the current ray entry point and PV1 ∈ TV is defined by the closest texel of TV with la > 0, within a maximum distance d in X- and Y-direction of TV. Therefore, the algorithm iterated over all texels of TV from −d to +d distance in X- and Y-direction starting from the texel with the same texel coordinates as PR.

Bottom Line: Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges.The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception.We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: JARA - High Performance Computing, IT Center - Computational Science and Engineering, Computer Science Department, Virtual Reality Group, RWTH Aachen University Aachen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The visualization of the progression of brain tissue loss in neurodegenerative diseases like corticobasal syndrome (CBS) can provide not only information about the localization and distribution of the volume loss, but also helps to understand the course and the causes of this neurodegenerative disorder. The visualization of such medical imaging data is often based on 2D sections, because they show both internal and external structures in one image. Spatial information, however, is lost. 3D visualization of imaging data is capable to solve this problem, but it faces the difficulty that more internally located structures may be occluded by structures near the surface. Here, we present an application with two designs for the 3D visualization of the human brain to address these challenges. In the first design, brain anatomy is displayed semi-transparently; it is supplemented by an anatomical section and cortical areas for spatial orientation, and the volumetric data of volume loss. The second design is guided by the principle of importance-driven volume rendering: A direct line-of-sight to the relevant structures in the deeper parts of the brain is provided by cutting out a frustum-like piece of brain tissue. The application was developed to run in both, standard desktop environments and in immersive virtual reality environments with stereoscopic viewing for improving the depth perception. We conclude, that the presented application facilitates the perception of the extent of brain degeneration with respect to its localization and affected regions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus