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The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, and electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children.

Moore RD, Drollette ES, Scudder MR, Bharij A, Hillman CH - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions.Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks.The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurocognitive Kinesiology Laboratory, Kinesiology, University of Illinois Urbana, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9-10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems), which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170) and late ERP components (P3, N400) were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

No MeSH data available.


Grand average difference waveforms of the N400 component for higher and lower fit participants.
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Figure 5: Grand average difference waveforms of the N400 component for higher and lower fit participants.

Mentions: In addition to P3 amplitude modulations, higher fit children exhibited significantly greater N400 amplitude to incorrect solutions relative to their lower fit counterparts; a finding further confirmed by difference wave analysis (see Figure 5). Accordingly, fitness appears to influence semantic memory processing during arithmetic verification. Further, tertiary analysis revealed that d' scores were positively correlated with N400 amplitude, suggesting that fitness may facilitate the detection of correct solutions and rejection of incorrect solutions via differential activation of semantic memory networks. Indeed, the only other study to evaluate the underlying neurocognitive processes giving rise to greater achievement scores in higher fit children observed a similar finding within the domain of linguistic performance (Scudder et al., 2014). In this study, behavioral and electrophysiological function in higher- and lower-fit children was observed as they read sentences that were either semantically or syntactically congruent (correct) or incongruent (incorrect). In addition to exhibiting shorter RT, higher- relative to lower-fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter N400 latency; suggesting that cardiorespiratory fitness during development facilitates the extraction of semantic information during sentence reading. Thus, the current results both compliment and extend the results of Scudder et al. (2014), which together suggest that fitness positively relates to semantic processing during academic-based tasks. The N400 therefore appears to be a convergent electrophysiological mechanism supporting fitness-related benefits observed across academic domains.


The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, and electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children.

Moore RD, Drollette ES, Scudder MR, Bharij A, Hillman CH - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Grand average difference waveforms of the N400 component for higher and lower fit participants.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4017138&req=5

Figure 5: Grand average difference waveforms of the N400 component for higher and lower fit participants.
Mentions: In addition to P3 amplitude modulations, higher fit children exhibited significantly greater N400 amplitude to incorrect solutions relative to their lower fit counterparts; a finding further confirmed by difference wave analysis (see Figure 5). Accordingly, fitness appears to influence semantic memory processing during arithmetic verification. Further, tertiary analysis revealed that d' scores were positively correlated with N400 amplitude, suggesting that fitness may facilitate the detection of correct solutions and rejection of incorrect solutions via differential activation of semantic memory networks. Indeed, the only other study to evaluate the underlying neurocognitive processes giving rise to greater achievement scores in higher fit children observed a similar finding within the domain of linguistic performance (Scudder et al., 2014). In this study, behavioral and electrophysiological function in higher- and lower-fit children was observed as they read sentences that were either semantically or syntactically congruent (correct) or incongruent (incorrect). In addition to exhibiting shorter RT, higher- relative to lower-fit children exhibited greater N400 amplitude and shorter N400 latency; suggesting that cardiorespiratory fitness during development facilitates the extraction of semantic information during sentence reading. Thus, the current results both compliment and extend the results of Scudder et al. (2014), which together suggest that fitness positively relates to semantic processing during academic-based tasks. The N400 therefore appears to be a convergent electrophysiological mechanism supporting fitness-related benefits observed across academic domains.

Bottom Line: During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions.Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks.The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurocognitive Kinesiology Laboratory, Kinesiology, University of Illinois Urbana, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9-10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems), which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170) and late ERP components (P3, N400) were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

No MeSH data available.