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The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, and electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children.

Moore RD, Drollette ES, Scudder MR, Bharij A, Hillman CH - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions.Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks.The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurocognitive Kinesiology Laboratory, Kinesiology, University of Illinois Urbana, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9-10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems), which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170) and late ERP components (P3, N400) were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

No MeSH data available.


Grand average waveforms of the P1, N170 and P3 components for higher and lower fit participants, for large and small experimental task solutions.
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Figure 4: Grand average waveforms of the P1, N170 and P3 components for higher and lower fit participants, for large and small experimental task solutions.

Mentions: Although no specific predictions were made relative to the early ERP components, several notable modulations as a function of fitness and task parameters occurred. First, while the P1 component is typically unevaluated in arithmetic verification paradigms, the current results suggest that fitness, solution correctness, and problem size may modulate P1 amplitude in children (see Figures 2–4). Specifically, although fitness significantly interacted with solution correctness, subsidiary analyses failed to decompose into significant differences among the groups. However, the moderate effect sizes across ROIs (0.68 > d > 0.30) suggest significant effects may emerge in a larger sample (see Figure 3). Furthermore, children in the current study exhibited greater P1 amplitude during small relative to large solutions, and for incorrect relative to correct solutions. While P1 amplitude modulations as a function of solution size may be attributed to differing physical properties or spatial distributions of attention between small (e.g., 9) and large (e.g., 17; Mangun and Hillyard, 1991; Luck et al., 1994; Muluh et al., 2011) solutions, neither physical properties nor attentional distribution can account for amplitude modulations as a function of solution correctness (see Figure 2). As such, further research appears necessary to elucidate the meaning and theoretical implications of P1 amplitude modulations during arithmetic verification in relation to fitness and task parameters.


The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, and electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children.

Moore RD, Drollette ES, Scudder MR, Bharij A, Hillman CH - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Grand average waveforms of the P1, N170 and P3 components for higher and lower fit participants, for large and small experimental task solutions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4017138&req=5

Figure 4: Grand average waveforms of the P1, N170 and P3 components for higher and lower fit participants, for large and small experimental task solutions.
Mentions: Although no specific predictions were made relative to the early ERP components, several notable modulations as a function of fitness and task parameters occurred. First, while the P1 component is typically unevaluated in arithmetic verification paradigms, the current results suggest that fitness, solution correctness, and problem size may modulate P1 amplitude in children (see Figures 2–4). Specifically, although fitness significantly interacted with solution correctness, subsidiary analyses failed to decompose into significant differences among the groups. However, the moderate effect sizes across ROIs (0.68 > d > 0.30) suggest significant effects may emerge in a larger sample (see Figure 3). Furthermore, children in the current study exhibited greater P1 amplitude during small relative to large solutions, and for incorrect relative to correct solutions. While P1 amplitude modulations as a function of solution size may be attributed to differing physical properties or spatial distributions of attention between small (e.g., 9) and large (e.g., 17; Mangun and Hillyard, 1991; Luck et al., 1994; Muluh et al., 2011) solutions, neither physical properties nor attentional distribution can account for amplitude modulations as a function of solution correctness (see Figure 2). As such, further research appears necessary to elucidate the meaning and theoretical implications of P1 amplitude modulations during arithmetic verification in relation to fitness and task parameters.

Bottom Line: During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions.Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks.The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurocognitive Kinesiology Laboratory, Kinesiology, University of Illinois Urbana, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9-10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems), which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170) and late ERP components (P3, N400) were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

No MeSH data available.