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The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, and electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children.

Moore RD, Drollette ES, Scudder MR, Bharij A, Hillman CH - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions.Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks.The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurocognitive Kinesiology Laboratory, Kinesiology, University of Illinois Urbana, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9-10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems), which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170) and late ERP components (P3, N400) were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

No MeSH data available.


Sample problem from the arithmetic verification task.
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Figure 1: Sample problem from the arithmetic verification task.

Mentions: Each trial consisted of stimuli presented sequentially in the following order: a fixation dot presented for 500 ms, the first operand presented for 1000 ms, a “+” sign presented for 500 ms, the second operand presented for 2000 ms, and then the solution, which was surrounded by a box and remained on the screen until the participant responded or a maximum of 2000 ms elapsed. The inter-stimulus interval was 100 ms and participants were instructed to respond as quickly and accurately as possible. Participants were counterbalanced according to correct response selection, with half of the participants instructed to make a right hand thumb press on a response pad if the solution was correct and the other half instructed to make a left thumb press if the solution was correct. Response assignments were further counterbalanced across fitness groupings. Participants completed two blocks of small problems and two blocks of large problems, which were counterbalanced across participants. Thus, all participants completed 240 trials, 120 for each problem set size, with 60 correct and 60 incorrect solutions presented randomly for each problem set size (see Figure 1).


The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, and electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children.

Moore RD, Drollette ES, Scudder MR, Bharij A, Hillman CH - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Sample problem from the arithmetic verification task.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4017138&req=5

Figure 1: Sample problem from the arithmetic verification task.
Mentions: Each trial consisted of stimuli presented sequentially in the following order: a fixation dot presented for 500 ms, the first operand presented for 1000 ms, a “+” sign presented for 500 ms, the second operand presented for 2000 ms, and then the solution, which was surrounded by a box and remained on the screen until the participant responded or a maximum of 2000 ms elapsed. The inter-stimulus interval was 100 ms and participants were instructed to respond as quickly and accurately as possible. Participants were counterbalanced according to correct response selection, with half of the participants instructed to make a right hand thumb press on a response pad if the solution was correct and the other half instructed to make a left thumb press if the solution was correct. Response assignments were further counterbalanced across fitness groupings. Participants completed two blocks of small problems and two blocks of large problems, which were counterbalanced across participants. Thus, all participants completed 240 trials, 120 for each problem set size, with 60 correct and 60 incorrect solutions presented randomly for each problem set size (see Figure 1).

Bottom Line: During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions.Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks.The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurocognitive Kinesiology Laboratory, Kinesiology, University of Illinois Urbana, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9-10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems), which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170) and late ERP components (P3, N400) were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning.

No MeSH data available.