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The anterior cingulate cortex and pain processing.

Fuchs PN, Peng YB, Boyette-Davis JA, Uhelski ML - Front Integr Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: Of primary interest is the contribution of the cingulate cortex in processing the affective component of pain.The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data obtained using novel behavioral paradigms in animals based on measuring escape and/or avoidance of a noxious stimulus.These paradigms have successfully been used to study the nature of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to higher order pain processing in rodents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, USA ; Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
The neural network that contributes to the suffering which accompanies persistent pain states involves a number of brain regions. Of primary interest is the contribution of the cingulate cortex in processing the affective component of pain. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data obtained using novel behavioral paradigms in animals based on measuring escape and/or avoidance of a noxious stimulus. These paradigms have successfully been used to study the nature of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to higher order pain processing in rodents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage of time (mean ± SEM) for each 5 min test interval spent in the light side of the test chamber for animals following peripheral nerve damage (L5 ligation, A) or inflammation (subcutaneous complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), B). When mechanical stimulation of the ligated or inflamed paw was associated with the preferred dark area of the chamber animals spend more time in the light area of the chamber indicating that the animals find stimulation of the hypersensitive paw aversive (Reprint from LaBuda and Fuchs, 2000a).
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Figure 1: Percentage of time (mean ± SEM) for each 5 min test interval spent in the light side of the test chamber for animals following peripheral nerve damage (L5 ligation, A) or inflammation (subcutaneous complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), B). When mechanical stimulation of the ligated or inflamed paw was associated with the preferred dark area of the chamber animals spend more time in the light area of the chamber indicating that the animals find stimulation of the hypersensitive paw aversive (Reprint from LaBuda and Fuchs, 2000a).

Mentions: A paradigm that was developed in our laboratory utilizes escape/avoidance behavior by allowing animals to associate the application of a mechanical stimulus to an experimentally induced hyperalgesic paw with the preferred dark area of a test chamber (LaBuda and Fuchs, 2000a). In this procedure, animals are allowed to “choose” the location where the noxious stimulus is applied via their location in a test environment. The basic paradigm involves the use of a chamber that is equally divided into two distinct compartments. One side of the chamber is dark and the other side is light. Under normal conditions, the natural preference for animals is the dark area of the chamber. In experimental studies, hypersensitivity is generated in one hindpaw using procedures to produce either unilateral nerve injury or inflammation. During behavioral testing, noxious input is generated by applying a suprathreshold mechanical stimulus to the plantar surface of the hindpaws. The hypersensitive paw is mechanically stimulated when the animals are located in the dark side of the chamber and the normal (non-manipulated) paw is stimulated when the animals are located in the light side of the chamber. Escape/avoidance behavior is measured as a shift from the preferred dark area of the chamber to increased time spent within the non-preferred light area of the chamber. Control animals spend about 20–40% of the time in the light side of the chamber (Figure 1). However, experimental groups demonstrate escape/avoidance behavior toward the dark side of the chamber, and a shift in preference to the light side of the chamber, spending 60–100% of the time in the light side of the chamber.


The anterior cingulate cortex and pain processing.

Fuchs PN, Peng YB, Boyette-Davis JA, Uhelski ML - Front Integr Neurosci (2014)

Percentage of time (mean ± SEM) for each 5 min test interval spent in the light side of the test chamber for animals following peripheral nerve damage (L5 ligation, A) or inflammation (subcutaneous complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), B). When mechanical stimulation of the ligated or inflamed paw was associated with the preferred dark area of the chamber animals spend more time in the light area of the chamber indicating that the animals find stimulation of the hypersensitive paw aversive (Reprint from LaBuda and Fuchs, 2000a).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4017137&req=5

Figure 1: Percentage of time (mean ± SEM) for each 5 min test interval spent in the light side of the test chamber for animals following peripheral nerve damage (L5 ligation, A) or inflammation (subcutaneous complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), B). When mechanical stimulation of the ligated or inflamed paw was associated with the preferred dark area of the chamber animals spend more time in the light area of the chamber indicating that the animals find stimulation of the hypersensitive paw aversive (Reprint from LaBuda and Fuchs, 2000a).
Mentions: A paradigm that was developed in our laboratory utilizes escape/avoidance behavior by allowing animals to associate the application of a mechanical stimulus to an experimentally induced hyperalgesic paw with the preferred dark area of a test chamber (LaBuda and Fuchs, 2000a). In this procedure, animals are allowed to “choose” the location where the noxious stimulus is applied via their location in a test environment. The basic paradigm involves the use of a chamber that is equally divided into two distinct compartments. One side of the chamber is dark and the other side is light. Under normal conditions, the natural preference for animals is the dark area of the chamber. In experimental studies, hypersensitivity is generated in one hindpaw using procedures to produce either unilateral nerve injury or inflammation. During behavioral testing, noxious input is generated by applying a suprathreshold mechanical stimulus to the plantar surface of the hindpaws. The hypersensitive paw is mechanically stimulated when the animals are located in the dark side of the chamber and the normal (non-manipulated) paw is stimulated when the animals are located in the light side of the chamber. Escape/avoidance behavior is measured as a shift from the preferred dark area of the chamber to increased time spent within the non-preferred light area of the chamber. Control animals spend about 20–40% of the time in the light side of the chamber (Figure 1). However, experimental groups demonstrate escape/avoidance behavior toward the dark side of the chamber, and a shift in preference to the light side of the chamber, spending 60–100% of the time in the light side of the chamber.

Bottom Line: Of primary interest is the contribution of the cingulate cortex in processing the affective component of pain.The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data obtained using novel behavioral paradigms in animals based on measuring escape and/or avoidance of a noxious stimulus.These paradigms have successfully been used to study the nature of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to higher order pain processing in rodents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, USA ; Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
The neural network that contributes to the suffering which accompanies persistent pain states involves a number of brain regions. Of primary interest is the contribution of the cingulate cortex in processing the affective component of pain. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data obtained using novel behavioral paradigms in animals based on measuring escape and/or avoidance of a noxious stimulus. These paradigms have successfully been used to study the nature of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to higher order pain processing in rodents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus