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Serum SALL4 is a novel prognosis biomarker with tumor recurrence and poor survival of patients in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Han SX, Wang JL, Guo XJ, He CC, Ying X, Ma JL, Zhang YY, Zhao Q, Zhu Q - J Immunol Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), is reexpressed in tissues of a subgroup of HCC associated with poor prognosis.HCC patients displayed higher levels (50.4%) of SALL4 protein in serum, compared with the three control groups.High SALL4 serum levels are a novel biomarker in the prognosis of HCC patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University Medical College, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

ABSTRACT

Aim: Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), is reexpressed in tissues of a subgroup of HCC associated with poor prognosis. Reports of SALL4 serological levels linked to HCC patients are meager and unclear in the prognosis of this malignancy.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry and optical microscopy protocols were used to examine the presence of SALL4 in liver tissues from the following patients: 38 HCC, 11 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), 13 liver cirrhosis, and 12 healthy controls. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the SALL4 levels in serum samples isolated from patients as follows: 127 with HCC, 27 with HBV, 24 with liver cirrhosis, and 23 normal controls.

Results: Analysis of liver tissues sections from HCC patients (18 out 38; 47.4%) showed positive staining for SALL4 and its expression did no correlate with any of the clinicopathologic characteristics. HCC patients displayed higher levels (50.4%) of SALL4 protein in serum, compared with the three control groups. Moreover, SALL4 concentration reached the maximum level after one week after treatment and dropped quickly after one month. These HCC patients showing high SALL4 serum levels had poor prognosis, evidenced by both tumor recurrence and overall survival rate.

Conclusions: High SALL4 serum levels are a novel biomarker in the prognosis of HCC patients.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative images showing the presence of SALL4 protein in liver cancer and noncancerous tissue sections. (a) The positive expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues (the scoring is 2+); (b) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver tissues with chronic hepatitis B virus; (c) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver samples with liver cirrhosis; and (d) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver samples of health controls. (400x magnification).
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fig1: Representative images showing the presence of SALL4 protein in liver cancer and noncancerous tissue sections. (a) The positive expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues (the scoring is 2+); (b) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver tissues with chronic hepatitis B virus; (c) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver samples with liver cirrhosis; and (d) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver samples of health controls. (400x magnification).

Mentions: For the expression of SALL4 in HCC tissues, strong nuclear staining in more than 1% of the tumor area was regarded as positive for SALL4. All tissue sections were analyzed and scored independently by three experienced pathologists. The expression of SALL4 was semiquantitatively analyzed by an immunohistochemical score combined with the percentage of hepatic cells showing specific immunoreactivity. The scoring system was as follows: the percentage of positively staining cells was graded as 0 (no staining), 1+: >0 and ≤25% of cells positive, 2+: >25 and ≤50% of cells positive, 3+: >50 and ≤90% of cells positive, 4+: >90% of cells positive. These results were reported as positive (score = 1, 2, 3, 4) or negative (score = 0) (Figure 1).


Serum SALL4 is a novel prognosis biomarker with tumor recurrence and poor survival of patients in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Han SX, Wang JL, Guo XJ, He CC, Ying X, Ma JL, Zhang YY, Zhao Q, Zhu Q - J Immunol Res (2014)

Representative images showing the presence of SALL4 protein in liver cancer and noncancerous tissue sections. (a) The positive expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues (the scoring is 2+); (b) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver tissues with chronic hepatitis B virus; (c) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver samples with liver cirrhosis; and (d) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver samples of health controls. (400x magnification).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4016881&req=5

fig1: Representative images showing the presence of SALL4 protein in liver cancer and noncancerous tissue sections. (a) The positive expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues (the scoring is 2+); (b) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver tissues with chronic hepatitis B virus; (c) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver samples with liver cirrhosis; and (d) the negative expression of SALL4 in liver samples of health controls. (400x magnification).
Mentions: For the expression of SALL4 in HCC tissues, strong nuclear staining in more than 1% of the tumor area was regarded as positive for SALL4. All tissue sections were analyzed and scored independently by three experienced pathologists. The expression of SALL4 was semiquantitatively analyzed by an immunohistochemical score combined with the percentage of hepatic cells showing specific immunoreactivity. The scoring system was as follows: the percentage of positively staining cells was graded as 0 (no staining), 1+: >0 and ≤25% of cells positive, 2+: >25 and ≤50% of cells positive, 3+: >50 and ≤90% of cells positive, 4+: >90% of cells positive. These results were reported as positive (score = 1, 2, 3, 4) or negative (score = 0) (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), is reexpressed in tissues of a subgroup of HCC associated with poor prognosis.HCC patients displayed higher levels (50.4%) of SALL4 protein in serum, compared with the three control groups.High SALL4 serum levels are a novel biomarker in the prognosis of HCC patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University Medical College, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

ABSTRACT

Aim: Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), is reexpressed in tissues of a subgroup of HCC associated with poor prognosis. Reports of SALL4 serological levels linked to HCC patients are meager and unclear in the prognosis of this malignancy.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry and optical microscopy protocols were used to examine the presence of SALL4 in liver tissues from the following patients: 38 HCC, 11 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), 13 liver cirrhosis, and 12 healthy controls. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the SALL4 levels in serum samples isolated from patients as follows: 127 with HCC, 27 with HBV, 24 with liver cirrhosis, and 23 normal controls.

Results: Analysis of liver tissues sections from HCC patients (18 out 38; 47.4%) showed positive staining for SALL4 and its expression did no correlate with any of the clinicopathologic characteristics. HCC patients displayed higher levels (50.4%) of SALL4 protein in serum, compared with the three control groups. Moreover, SALL4 concentration reached the maximum level after one week after treatment and dropped quickly after one month. These HCC patients showing high SALL4 serum levels had poor prognosis, evidenced by both tumor recurrence and overall survival rate.

Conclusions: High SALL4 serum levels are a novel biomarker in the prognosis of HCC patients.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus