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A simplified evaluation system of surface-related lung lesions of pigs for official meat inspection under industrial slaughter conditions in Germany.

Steinmann T, Blaha T, Meemken D - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Bottom Line: Most frequent inter-rater disagreements greater than 75% were found for moderate pneumonia.Results of the post-training investigation based on 4,646 lungs showed a significantly improved reliability of lung lesion evaluation and the inter-rater agreement increased in all respects.Especially the disagreement of recording moderate cases of pneumonia decreased in total to 15% deviations from reference.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Food Quality and Food Safety, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, D-30173 Hannover, Germany. diana.meemken@tiho-hannover.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: European and national administrative legislation require objective evaluation systems for organ lesions at pig slaughter. These results can be used as basis for herd health improvement programs by farmers and their consulting veterinarians. Various studies have shown that the current evaluation and recording of lesions by authorized meat inspectors are not reliable and produce significant inter-rater disagreement especially for lung lesions in pigs. The objectives of this study were to increase the usability of official meat inspection data by a developed and validated scheme and to analyze potential improvements in the reliability of the proposed system under industrialized slaughter conditions.

Results: A simplified evaluation scheme for surface-related lung lesions was developed based on morphometric evaluations of unaffected lungs with quantitative relationships of each lobe to the whole lung ("Rule of Tens"). Furthermore, a theoretical as well as a hands-on training program for meat inspectors was developed and applied. Based on 5,183 lungs, the authors established a baseline of the inter-rater reliability of current routine assessments of lung lesions as documented by meat inspectors compared with the assessments of an independent veterinarian using the developed simplified evaluation scheme. Most frequent inter-rater disagreements greater than 75% were found for moderate pneumonia. Sources of the deviations most frequently included misinterpretations of technical artifacts, which were erroneously assessed by the meat inspectors as pneumonic lung lesions. Results of the post-training investigation based on 4,646 lungs showed a significantly improved reliability of lung lesion evaluation and the inter-rater agreement increased in all respects. Especially the disagreement of recording moderate cases of pneumonia decreased in total to 15% deviations from reference.

Conclusions: The presented simplified lung evaluation scheme showed its capability to standardize the evaluation of lung lesions according to administrative legislation under industrialial slaughter conditions. The reliability of official meat inspections can be significantly increased with the help of the presented scheme to assess surface-related lung lesions of slaughter pigs. Continuous standardization and optimization can be achieved by personalized training programs in the framework of quality assurance systems for meat inspectors.

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Lung surface morphometry, dorsal and ventral view on cross-section paper.
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Figure 1: Lung surface morphometry, dorsal and ventral view on cross-section paper.

Mentions: For this purpose, the surfaces of macroscopically unaltered lungs of pigs at slaughter were measured and the quantitative proportion of each lobe to the whole lung was calculated as a percentage of the total lung surface. In March 2011, five unaltered lungs, i.e. all over aerated lungs with a typical light salmon color (Figure 1), from pigs with an average of 100 to 110 kg slaughter weight were selected on a sample basis from a slaughterhouse in Lower Saxony, Germany. Both sides of the lungs were photographed with a digital camera. The distance between the working top and the tripod-fixed camera was 40 cm. The photographs of each lung were printed on cross-section paper (Max Bringmann, Wendelstein, Germany) with the smallest areal sensitivity of 1 mm2. Due to the anatomical conditions of the cranial lobes of the lung on both sides, lobes were subdivided along a simulated line with 45° angle based on a horizontal line drawn at the bifurcatio trachealis (Figure 2). Subsequently, the lungs were schematically divided into lung lobes according to their anatomical nomenclature in lobus cranialis pulmonis sinistri pars cranialis and pars caudalis, lobus caudalis pulmonis sinistri, lobus cranialis pulmonis dextri, lobus medius pulmonis dextri, lobus caudalis pulmonalis dextri and lobus accessorius pulmonis dextri [21], respectively. Each of the seven lobes was consecutively numbered on the ventral and dorsal side, and the surface proportion in relation to the total lung surface was calculated. After analyzing the results of the surface calculations of the five unaltered lungs, medians and arithmetic means per lung lobe were calculated. Based on the calculated means, simplifications of the proportion of each lobe were defined as a simplified surface-related evaluation scheme for lung lesions in order to improve operability of the assessments.


A simplified evaluation system of surface-related lung lesions of pigs for official meat inspection under industrial slaughter conditions in Germany.

Steinmann T, Blaha T, Meemken D - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Lung surface morphometry, dorsal and ventral view on cross-section paper.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4016671&req=5

Figure 1: Lung surface morphometry, dorsal and ventral view on cross-section paper.
Mentions: For this purpose, the surfaces of macroscopically unaltered lungs of pigs at slaughter were measured and the quantitative proportion of each lobe to the whole lung was calculated as a percentage of the total lung surface. In March 2011, five unaltered lungs, i.e. all over aerated lungs with a typical light salmon color (Figure 1), from pigs with an average of 100 to 110 kg slaughter weight were selected on a sample basis from a slaughterhouse in Lower Saxony, Germany. Both sides of the lungs were photographed with a digital camera. The distance between the working top and the tripod-fixed camera was 40 cm. The photographs of each lung were printed on cross-section paper (Max Bringmann, Wendelstein, Germany) with the smallest areal sensitivity of 1 mm2. Due to the anatomical conditions of the cranial lobes of the lung on both sides, lobes were subdivided along a simulated line with 45° angle based on a horizontal line drawn at the bifurcatio trachealis (Figure 2). Subsequently, the lungs were schematically divided into lung lobes according to their anatomical nomenclature in lobus cranialis pulmonis sinistri pars cranialis and pars caudalis, lobus caudalis pulmonis sinistri, lobus cranialis pulmonis dextri, lobus medius pulmonis dextri, lobus caudalis pulmonalis dextri and lobus accessorius pulmonis dextri [21], respectively. Each of the seven lobes was consecutively numbered on the ventral and dorsal side, and the surface proportion in relation to the total lung surface was calculated. After analyzing the results of the surface calculations of the five unaltered lungs, medians and arithmetic means per lung lobe were calculated. Based on the calculated means, simplifications of the proportion of each lobe were defined as a simplified surface-related evaluation scheme for lung lesions in order to improve operability of the assessments.

Bottom Line: Most frequent inter-rater disagreements greater than 75% were found for moderate pneumonia.Results of the post-training investigation based on 4,646 lungs showed a significantly improved reliability of lung lesion evaluation and the inter-rater agreement increased in all respects.Especially the disagreement of recording moderate cases of pneumonia decreased in total to 15% deviations from reference.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Food Quality and Food Safety, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, D-30173 Hannover, Germany. diana.meemken@tiho-hannover.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: European and national administrative legislation require objective evaluation systems for organ lesions at pig slaughter. These results can be used as basis for herd health improvement programs by farmers and their consulting veterinarians. Various studies have shown that the current evaluation and recording of lesions by authorized meat inspectors are not reliable and produce significant inter-rater disagreement especially for lung lesions in pigs. The objectives of this study were to increase the usability of official meat inspection data by a developed and validated scheme and to analyze potential improvements in the reliability of the proposed system under industrialized slaughter conditions.

Results: A simplified evaluation scheme for surface-related lung lesions was developed based on morphometric evaluations of unaffected lungs with quantitative relationships of each lobe to the whole lung ("Rule of Tens"). Furthermore, a theoretical as well as a hands-on training program for meat inspectors was developed and applied. Based on 5,183 lungs, the authors established a baseline of the inter-rater reliability of current routine assessments of lung lesions as documented by meat inspectors compared with the assessments of an independent veterinarian using the developed simplified evaluation scheme. Most frequent inter-rater disagreements greater than 75% were found for moderate pneumonia. Sources of the deviations most frequently included misinterpretations of technical artifacts, which were erroneously assessed by the meat inspectors as pneumonic lung lesions. Results of the post-training investigation based on 4,646 lungs showed a significantly improved reliability of lung lesion evaluation and the inter-rater agreement increased in all respects. Especially the disagreement of recording moderate cases of pneumonia decreased in total to 15% deviations from reference.

Conclusions: The presented simplified lung evaluation scheme showed its capability to standardize the evaluation of lung lesions according to administrative legislation under industrialial slaughter conditions. The reliability of official meat inspections can be significantly increased with the help of the presented scheme to assess surface-related lung lesions of slaughter pigs. Continuous standardization and optimization can be achieved by personalized training programs in the framework of quality assurance systems for meat inspectors.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus