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Evidence-based support for S1 transpedicular screw entry point modification.

Kubaszewski L, Nowakowski A, Kaczmarczyk J - J Orthop Surg Res (2014)

Bottom Line: In the literature, 'below and lateral to the superior S1 facet' is defined as the basic technique for screw introduction.Medial shift of the starting point does not increase the risk of spinal canal perforation.Further biomechanical and clinical study should be performed to prove its superiority to classical technique.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, W, Dega University Hospital, University of Medical Science Poznan, 28 Czerwca 1956 r Street, Poznań 61-545, Poland. pismiennictwo1@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: In the literature, 'below and lateral to the superior S1 facet' is defined as the basic technique for screw introduction. Until a recently published modification, no analysis for alternative starting point has been proposed nor evaluated, although some surgeons claim to use some modifications. In this study, we analyse the data from anatomical and radiological studies for optimal starting point in transpedicular S1 screw placement.

Methods: A Medline search for key word combination: sacrum, anatomy, pedicle, screws and bone density resulted in 26 publications relevant to the topic. After a review of literature, two articles were chosen, as those including the appropriate set of data. The data retrieved from the articles is used for the analysis. The spatial relation of S1 facet, pedicles and vertebral body with cortical thickness and bone density in normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic sacrum is analysed.

Results: Presented data advocates for more medial placement of the screws due to higher bone density and lower bone loss in osteoporosis. Medial shift of the starting point does not increase the risk of spinal canal perforation. Osteoarthritic changes within the facet can augment the posterior supporting point for screw. The facet angular orientation is similar to convergent screw trajectory.

Conclusions: Modified technique for S1 screw placement takes advantage of latest anatomical and clinical data. In our opinion, technique modification improves the reproducibility and may increase stability and the screws within the posterior cortex of the S1 vertebra. Further biomechanical and clinical study should be performed to prove its superiority to classical technique.

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S1 anatomic landmark analysis. The projection of the anatomical landmarks over S1 vertebral body silhouette (the notation of landmarks are the same as in the source article [17]). r, vertebral body transverse diameters; v, transverse diameter of the spinal canal at the superior aperture of the sacrum; p, distance between the S1 facet joints; o, width of the S1 facet joint; n, height of the S1 facet joint; h, distance between the first posterior sacral foramen and superior border of the sacrum (posterior pedicle height); s, height of the S1 vertebral body.
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Figure 2: S1 anatomic landmark analysis. The projection of the anatomical landmarks over S1 vertebral body silhouette (the notation of landmarks are the same as in the source article [17]). r, vertebral body transverse diameters; v, transverse diameter of the spinal canal at the superior aperture of the sacrum; p, distance between the S1 facet joints; o, width of the S1 facet joint; n, height of the S1 facet joint; h, distance between the first posterior sacral foramen and superior border of the sacrum (posterior pedicle height); s, height of the S1 vertebral body.

Mentions: Particular landmark relation is presented in Figure 2, for better understanding of clinical anatomy.


Evidence-based support for S1 transpedicular screw entry point modification.

Kubaszewski L, Nowakowski A, Kaczmarczyk J - J Orthop Surg Res (2014)

S1 anatomic landmark analysis. The projection of the anatomical landmarks over S1 vertebral body silhouette (the notation of landmarks are the same as in the source article [17]). r, vertebral body transverse diameters; v, transverse diameter of the spinal canal at the superior aperture of the sacrum; p, distance between the S1 facet joints; o, width of the S1 facet joint; n, height of the S1 facet joint; h, distance between the first posterior sacral foramen and superior border of the sacrum (posterior pedicle height); s, height of the S1 vertebral body.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4016646&req=5

Figure 2: S1 anatomic landmark analysis. The projection of the anatomical landmarks over S1 vertebral body silhouette (the notation of landmarks are the same as in the source article [17]). r, vertebral body transverse diameters; v, transverse diameter of the spinal canal at the superior aperture of the sacrum; p, distance between the S1 facet joints; o, width of the S1 facet joint; n, height of the S1 facet joint; h, distance between the first posterior sacral foramen and superior border of the sacrum (posterior pedicle height); s, height of the S1 vertebral body.
Mentions: Particular landmark relation is presented in Figure 2, for better understanding of clinical anatomy.

Bottom Line: In the literature, 'below and lateral to the superior S1 facet' is defined as the basic technique for screw introduction.Medial shift of the starting point does not increase the risk of spinal canal perforation.Further biomechanical and clinical study should be performed to prove its superiority to classical technique.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, W, Dega University Hospital, University of Medical Science Poznan, 28 Czerwca 1956 r Street, Poznań 61-545, Poland. pismiennictwo1@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: In the literature, 'below and lateral to the superior S1 facet' is defined as the basic technique for screw introduction. Until a recently published modification, no analysis for alternative starting point has been proposed nor evaluated, although some surgeons claim to use some modifications. In this study, we analyse the data from anatomical and radiological studies for optimal starting point in transpedicular S1 screw placement.

Methods: A Medline search for key word combination: sacrum, anatomy, pedicle, screws and bone density resulted in 26 publications relevant to the topic. After a review of literature, two articles were chosen, as those including the appropriate set of data. The data retrieved from the articles is used for the analysis. The spatial relation of S1 facet, pedicles and vertebral body with cortical thickness and bone density in normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic sacrum is analysed.

Results: Presented data advocates for more medial placement of the screws due to higher bone density and lower bone loss in osteoporosis. Medial shift of the starting point does not increase the risk of spinal canal perforation. Osteoarthritic changes within the facet can augment the posterior supporting point for screw. The facet angular orientation is similar to convergent screw trajectory.

Conclusions: Modified technique for S1 screw placement takes advantage of latest anatomical and clinical data. In our opinion, technique modification improves the reproducibility and may increase stability and the screws within the posterior cortex of the S1 vertebra. Further biomechanical and clinical study should be performed to prove its superiority to classical technique.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus