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Prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies and associated risk factors among cattle in East Darfur State, Western Sudan.

Khair HO, Adam IA, Bushara SB, Eltom KH, Musa NO, Aradaib IE - Ir Vet J (2014)

Bottom Line: A total of 224 blood samples were collected randomly from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan.Older cattle (>2 years of age) were six times more likely to be infected with BTV (OR = 6.62, CI = 2.87-15.26, p-value = 0.01).Regarding animal source (contact with other herds) as a risk factor, it was shown that cattle purchased from market or introduced from other herds were 3 times at higher risk of being infected with BTV (OR = 3.87, CI = 1.07-13.87, p value = 0.03).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Biology Laboratory (MBL), Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, P,O, Box 32, Khartoum North, Sudan. aradaib@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-transmitted virus, which causes bluetongue disease (BT) in sheep and a fatal hemorrhagic infection in North American white-tailed deer. However, in cattle the disease is typically asymptomatic and no overt clinical signs of disease appear to be associated with BTV infection. Serological evidence and isolation of different BTV serotypes have been reported in Sudan, however, no information is currently available in regard to previous exposure of Sudanese livestock to BTV infection in East Darfur State, Sudan.

Aims: To determine the prevalence of BTV antibodies and to identify the potential risk factors associated with BTV infection among cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

Methods: A total of 224 blood samples were collected randomly from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The serum samples were screened for detection of BTV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA).

Results: Serological evidence of BTV infection was observed in 150 out of 224 animals accounting for a 67% prevalence rate among cattle in East Darfur State. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were six times more likely to be infected with BTV (OR = 6.62, CI = 2.87-15.26, p-value = 0.01). Regarding animal source (contact with other herds) as a risk factor, it was shown that cattle purchased from market or introduced from other herds were 3 times at higher risk of being infected with BTV (OR = 3.87, CI = 1.07-13.87, p value = 0.03). Exposure of cattle to the insect vector increased the risk of contracting BTV infection by six times compared to non-exposed cattle (OR = 6.44, CI = 1.53-27.08, p value = 0.01).

Conclusion: The present study indicated that age, animal source and the intensity of the insect vector are influential risk factors for BTV infection in cattle in the Darfur region. Surveillance for BTV infection should be extended to include other susceptible ruminants and to study the distribution of the insect vectors to better predict and respond to a possible BTV outbreak in the State of East Darfur, Sudan.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Localities of East Darfur are illustrated by circle with the numbers inside. Number 1 = ElDeain; Number 2 = Abujabra; Number 3 = Assalaysa, Number 4 = Elfirdus, Number 5 = Bahr El Arab.
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Figure 1: Localities of East Darfur are illustrated by circle with the numbers inside. Number 1 = ElDeain; Number 2 = Abujabra; Number 3 = Assalaysa, Number 4 = Elfirdus, Number 5 = Bahr El Arab.

Mentions: The State of East Darfur is located between latitudes 12–9.5 N - longitude 25 to 28 E and altitude of 449 meters (1476 feet) above sea level and about 831 km from the capital of Sudan, Khartoum. The State is boarded by North Darfur State in the north; Northern Kordufan in the east, South Darfur in the west and the State of South Sudan to the South. The total population in East Darfur is approximately 0.3 million as estimated in 2006. The livestock population in East Darfur constitutes one of the major sources of the income to rural communities and the national economy, at large. This State is one of the main animal rearing areas in the country and possesses the large numbers of livestock. The cattle population of this state is presently estimated to be as 2–3 million. About 80% of cattle in this State are kept under nomadic system, where nomads migrate to the State of South Sudan in the dry season and back to north in the rainy season. During this movement the nomads cover the area from borders of the State of South Sudan up to North Darfur, where the animals inter mix freely and share common water, pasture route and premises with cattle in the State of South Sudan. In Figure 1, a map of the localities included in the study area of East Darfur State is presented.


Prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies and associated risk factors among cattle in East Darfur State, Western Sudan.

Khair HO, Adam IA, Bushara SB, Eltom KH, Musa NO, Aradaib IE - Ir Vet J (2014)

Localities of East Darfur are illustrated by circle with the numbers inside. Number 1 = ElDeain; Number 2 = Abujabra; Number 3 = Assalaysa, Number 4 = Elfirdus, Number 5 = Bahr El Arab.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4016605&req=5

Figure 1: Localities of East Darfur are illustrated by circle with the numbers inside. Number 1 = ElDeain; Number 2 = Abujabra; Number 3 = Assalaysa, Number 4 = Elfirdus, Number 5 = Bahr El Arab.
Mentions: The State of East Darfur is located between latitudes 12–9.5 N - longitude 25 to 28 E and altitude of 449 meters (1476 feet) above sea level and about 831 km from the capital of Sudan, Khartoum. The State is boarded by North Darfur State in the north; Northern Kordufan in the east, South Darfur in the west and the State of South Sudan to the South. The total population in East Darfur is approximately 0.3 million as estimated in 2006. The livestock population in East Darfur constitutes one of the major sources of the income to rural communities and the national economy, at large. This State is one of the main animal rearing areas in the country and possesses the large numbers of livestock. The cattle population of this state is presently estimated to be as 2–3 million. About 80% of cattle in this State are kept under nomadic system, where nomads migrate to the State of South Sudan in the dry season and back to north in the rainy season. During this movement the nomads cover the area from borders of the State of South Sudan up to North Darfur, where the animals inter mix freely and share common water, pasture route and premises with cattle in the State of South Sudan. In Figure 1, a map of the localities included in the study area of East Darfur State is presented.

Bottom Line: A total of 224 blood samples were collected randomly from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan.Older cattle (>2 years of age) were six times more likely to be infected with BTV (OR = 6.62, CI = 2.87-15.26, p-value = 0.01).Regarding animal source (contact with other herds) as a risk factor, it was shown that cattle purchased from market or introduced from other herds were 3 times at higher risk of being infected with BTV (OR = 3.87, CI = 1.07-13.87, p value = 0.03).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Biology Laboratory (MBL), Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, P,O, Box 32, Khartoum North, Sudan. aradaib@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-transmitted virus, which causes bluetongue disease (BT) in sheep and a fatal hemorrhagic infection in North American white-tailed deer. However, in cattle the disease is typically asymptomatic and no overt clinical signs of disease appear to be associated with BTV infection. Serological evidence and isolation of different BTV serotypes have been reported in Sudan, however, no information is currently available in regard to previous exposure of Sudanese livestock to BTV infection in East Darfur State, Sudan.

Aims: To determine the prevalence of BTV antibodies and to identify the potential risk factors associated with BTV infection among cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

Methods: A total of 224 blood samples were collected randomly from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The serum samples were screened for detection of BTV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA).

Results: Serological evidence of BTV infection was observed in 150 out of 224 animals accounting for a 67% prevalence rate among cattle in East Darfur State. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were six times more likely to be infected with BTV (OR = 6.62, CI = 2.87-15.26, p-value = 0.01). Regarding animal source (contact with other herds) as a risk factor, it was shown that cattle purchased from market or introduced from other herds were 3 times at higher risk of being infected with BTV (OR = 3.87, CI = 1.07-13.87, p value = 0.03). Exposure of cattle to the insect vector increased the risk of contracting BTV infection by six times compared to non-exposed cattle (OR = 6.44, CI = 1.53-27.08, p value = 0.01).

Conclusion: The present study indicated that age, animal source and the intensity of the insect vector are influential risk factors for BTV infection in cattle in the Darfur region. Surveillance for BTV infection should be extended to include other susceptible ruminants and to study the distribution of the insect vectors to better predict and respond to a possible BTV outbreak in the State of East Darfur, Sudan.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus