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The mirror neuron system in post-stroke rehabilitation.

Carvalho D, Teixeira S, Lucas M, Yuan TF, Chaves F, Peressutti C, Machado S, Bittencourt J, Menéndez-González M, Nardi AE, Velasques B, Cagy M, Piedade R, Ribeiro P, Arias-Carrión O - Int Arch Med (2013)

Bottom Line: Different treatments for stroke patients have been proposed; among them the mirror therapy and motion imagery lead to functional recovery by providing a cortical reorganization.Bibliographic research was conducted based on publications over the past thirteen years written in English in the databases Scielo, Pubmed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge.The studies showed how the interaction among vision, proprioception and motor commands promotes the recruitment of mirror neurons, thus providing cortical reorganization and functional recovery of post-stroke patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Sleep and Movement Disorders Clinic and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Unit, Hospital General Dr Manuel Gea González, Secretaría de Salud, México, DF, México. arias@email.ifc.unam.mx.

ABSTRACT
Different treatments for stroke patients have been proposed; among them the mirror therapy and motion imagery lead to functional recovery by providing a cortical reorganization. Up today the basic concepts of the current literature on mirror neurons and the major findings regarding the use of mirror therapy and motor imagery as potential tools to promote reorganization and functional recovery in post-stroke patients. Bibliographic research was conducted based on publications over the past thirteen years written in English in the databases Scielo, Pubmed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge. The studies showed how the interaction among vision, proprioception and motor commands promotes the recruitment of mirror neurons, thus providing cortical reorganization and functional recovery of post-stroke patients. We conclude that the experimental advances on Mirror Neurons will bring new rational therapeutic approaches to post-stroke rehabilitation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neural circuitry for imitation represented in the right hemisphere. vPMC = ventral premotor cortex; IFG = inferior frontal gyrus; IPL = inferior parietal lobe; STG = superior temporal gyrus. According to the evidence cited in this review, these regions are important to understand the relationship between the mirror neuron areas and the possible therapies in post-stroke patients.
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Figure 1: Neural circuitry for imitation represented in the right hemisphere. vPMC = ventral premotor cortex; IFG = inferior frontal gyrus; IPL = inferior parietal lobe; STG = superior temporal gyrus. According to the evidence cited in this review, these regions are important to understand the relationship between the mirror neuron areas and the possible therapies in post-stroke patients.

Mentions: Studies hypothesize that mirror neurons provide a fundamental neural basis for building imitative skills. To clearly define imitative learning, it is necessary to establish three strict criteria, i.e. the emulated behavior must: i) be new to the imitator, ii) reproduce the behavioral strategies of the model, and iii) share the same ultimate goal. Therefore, behaviors that do not meet these criteria should not be regarded as true and imitative and can be explained by other mechanisms such as stimulus enhancement of emulation or “response to facilitation” [42]. Thus, to highlight the imitative process in humans, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were conducted, instructing the volunteers to observe and imitate a finger movement (imitation task), and to later repeat the same movement in response to space stimuli (task observation/execution). In other experiments the same participants were asked to observe identical stimuli, though without responding to them (the observation tasks). The results showed that cortical activation in imitation tasks is significantly higher than in non-imitative ones [43,44]. Moreover, other fMRI studies have shown that during a simple imitation task, the activation of neuron cells occurs in Brodmann’s area 44, as well as in the parietal cortex. This result supported other experiments showing that the mirror neuron system is involved in human imitation [45,46]. The mirror neurons are present particularly in different cortical areas: inferior frontal, inferior parietal, premotor and occipital cortex [20]. For better visualization (see Figure 1).


The mirror neuron system in post-stroke rehabilitation.

Carvalho D, Teixeira S, Lucas M, Yuan TF, Chaves F, Peressutti C, Machado S, Bittencourt J, Menéndez-González M, Nardi AE, Velasques B, Cagy M, Piedade R, Ribeiro P, Arias-Carrión O - Int Arch Med (2013)

Neural circuitry for imitation represented in the right hemisphere. vPMC = ventral premotor cortex; IFG = inferior frontal gyrus; IPL = inferior parietal lobe; STG = superior temporal gyrus. According to the evidence cited in this review, these regions are important to understand the relationship between the mirror neuron areas and the possible therapies in post-stroke patients.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4016580&req=5

Figure 1: Neural circuitry for imitation represented in the right hemisphere. vPMC = ventral premotor cortex; IFG = inferior frontal gyrus; IPL = inferior parietal lobe; STG = superior temporal gyrus. According to the evidence cited in this review, these regions are important to understand the relationship between the mirror neuron areas and the possible therapies in post-stroke patients.
Mentions: Studies hypothesize that mirror neurons provide a fundamental neural basis for building imitative skills. To clearly define imitative learning, it is necessary to establish three strict criteria, i.e. the emulated behavior must: i) be new to the imitator, ii) reproduce the behavioral strategies of the model, and iii) share the same ultimate goal. Therefore, behaviors that do not meet these criteria should not be regarded as true and imitative and can be explained by other mechanisms such as stimulus enhancement of emulation or “response to facilitation” [42]. Thus, to highlight the imitative process in humans, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were conducted, instructing the volunteers to observe and imitate a finger movement (imitation task), and to later repeat the same movement in response to space stimuli (task observation/execution). In other experiments the same participants were asked to observe identical stimuli, though without responding to them (the observation tasks). The results showed that cortical activation in imitation tasks is significantly higher than in non-imitative ones [43,44]. Moreover, other fMRI studies have shown that during a simple imitation task, the activation of neuron cells occurs in Brodmann’s area 44, as well as in the parietal cortex. This result supported other experiments showing that the mirror neuron system is involved in human imitation [45,46]. The mirror neurons are present particularly in different cortical areas: inferior frontal, inferior parietal, premotor and occipital cortex [20]. For better visualization (see Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Different treatments for stroke patients have been proposed; among them the mirror therapy and motion imagery lead to functional recovery by providing a cortical reorganization.Bibliographic research was conducted based on publications over the past thirteen years written in English in the databases Scielo, Pubmed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge.The studies showed how the interaction among vision, proprioception and motor commands promotes the recruitment of mirror neurons, thus providing cortical reorganization and functional recovery of post-stroke patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Sleep and Movement Disorders Clinic and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Unit, Hospital General Dr Manuel Gea González, Secretaría de Salud, México, DF, México. arias@email.ifc.unam.mx.

ABSTRACT
Different treatments for stroke patients have been proposed; among them the mirror therapy and motion imagery lead to functional recovery by providing a cortical reorganization. Up today the basic concepts of the current literature on mirror neurons and the major findings regarding the use of mirror therapy and motor imagery as potential tools to promote reorganization and functional recovery in post-stroke patients. Bibliographic research was conducted based on publications over the past thirteen years written in English in the databases Scielo, Pubmed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge. The studies showed how the interaction among vision, proprioception and motor commands promotes the recruitment of mirror neurons, thus providing cortical reorganization and functional recovery of post-stroke patients. We conclude that the experimental advances on Mirror Neurons will bring new rational therapeutic approaches to post-stroke rehabilitation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus