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Primary ciliary dyskinesia: critical evaluation of clinical symptoms and diagnosis in patients with normal and abnormal ultrastructure.

Boon M, Smits A, Cuppens H, Jaspers M, Proesmans M, Dupont LJ, Vermeulen FL, Van Daele S, Malfroot A, Godding V, Jorissen M, De Boeck K - Orphanet J Rare Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: To date, mutations in more than 20 different genes have been found.We compared the clinical characteristics, lung function, microbiology and imaging results of 68 patients with PCD and NU to those of 90 patients with dynein deficiencies and 41 patients with central pair abnormalities.Genetic analysis was performed in 29/68 patients with PCD and NU, and biallelic mutations were found in 79% (23/29) of tested patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Pulmonology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. mieke.boon@uzleuven.be.

ABSTRACT

Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare disorder with variable disease progression. To date, mutations in more than 20 different genes have been found. At present, PCD subtypes are described according to the ultrastructural defect on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the motile cilia. PCD with normal ultrastructure (NU) is rarely reported because it requires additional testing. Biallelic mutations in DNAH11 have been described as one cause of PCD with NU.The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics of a large population of patients with PCD, in relation to the ultrastructural defect. Additionally, we aimed to demonstrate the need for biopsy and cell culture to reliably diagnose PCD, especially the NU subtype.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 206 patients with PCD. We compared the clinical characteristics, lung function, microbiology and imaging results of 68 patients with PCD and NU to those of 90 patients with dynein deficiencies and 41 patients with central pair abnormalities. In addition, we aimed to demonstrate the robustness of the diagnosis of the NU subtype in cell culture by data from genetic analysis.

Results: PCD with NU comprised 33% (68/206) of all patients with PCD. Compared to other subtypes, patients with PCD and NU had a similar frequency of upper and lower respiratory tract problems, as well as similar lung function and imaging. With the currently widely applied approach, without cell culture, the diagnosis would have been missed in 16% (11/68) of patients with NU. Genetic analysis was performed in 29/68 patients with PCD and NU, and biallelic mutations were found in 79% (23/29) of tested patients.

Conclusions: We reported on the clinical characteristics of a large population of patients with PCD and NU. We have shown that systematic performance of biopsy and cell culture increases sensitivity to detect PCD, especially the subtype with NU.PCD with NU has similar clinical characteristics as other PCD types and requires biopsy plus ciliogenesis in culture for optimal diagnostic yield.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow chart of the diagnostic algorithm for PCD, used in our center. Functional evaluation (CBF and coordination of ciliary beating) was performed on the fresh biopsy, provided that cilia were present. If sufficient material was obtained, a part of the biopsy is prepared for TEM, the rest is brought in a cell culture system. After ciliogenesis in culture, all the samples are evaluated for functional and structural abnormalities. The diagnosis of PCD is made when coordination after ciliogenesis in culture (marked in grey) is abnormal. Genetic analysis is not performed routinely, but is performed preferentially in patients with normal ultrastructure.
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Figure 1: Flow chart of the diagnostic algorithm for PCD, used in our center. Functional evaluation (CBF and coordination of ciliary beating) was performed on the fresh biopsy, provided that cilia were present. If sufficient material was obtained, a part of the biopsy is prepared for TEM, the rest is brought in a cell culture system. After ciliogenesis in culture, all the samples are evaluated for functional and structural abnormalities. The diagnosis of PCD is made when coordination after ciliogenesis in culture (marked in grey) is abnormal. Genetic analysis is not performed routinely, but is performed preferentially in patients with normal ultrastructure.

Mentions: The flow chart for the diagnostic algorithm of PCD in our center is shown in FigureĀ 1. All patients included underwent at least one nasal mucosal biopsy for functional and structural evaluation of the respiratory cilia before and after ciliogenesis in culture, even if the evaluation before ciliogenesis was normal. In case insufficient material was available for both evaluations, all material was brought into culture.


Primary ciliary dyskinesia: critical evaluation of clinical symptoms and diagnosis in patients with normal and abnormal ultrastructure.

Boon M, Smits A, Cuppens H, Jaspers M, Proesmans M, Dupont LJ, Vermeulen FL, Van Daele S, Malfroot A, Godding V, Jorissen M, De Boeck K - Orphanet J Rare Dis (2014)

Flow chart of the diagnostic algorithm for PCD, used in our center. Functional evaluation (CBF and coordination of ciliary beating) was performed on the fresh biopsy, provided that cilia were present. If sufficient material was obtained, a part of the biopsy is prepared for TEM, the rest is brought in a cell culture system. After ciliogenesis in culture, all the samples are evaluated for functional and structural abnormalities. The diagnosis of PCD is made when coordination after ciliogenesis in culture (marked in grey) is abnormal. Genetic analysis is not performed routinely, but is performed preferentially in patients with normal ultrastructure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4016480&req=5

Figure 1: Flow chart of the diagnostic algorithm for PCD, used in our center. Functional evaluation (CBF and coordination of ciliary beating) was performed on the fresh biopsy, provided that cilia were present. If sufficient material was obtained, a part of the biopsy is prepared for TEM, the rest is brought in a cell culture system. After ciliogenesis in culture, all the samples are evaluated for functional and structural abnormalities. The diagnosis of PCD is made when coordination after ciliogenesis in culture (marked in grey) is abnormal. Genetic analysis is not performed routinely, but is performed preferentially in patients with normal ultrastructure.
Mentions: The flow chart for the diagnostic algorithm of PCD in our center is shown in FigureĀ 1. All patients included underwent at least one nasal mucosal biopsy for functional and structural evaluation of the respiratory cilia before and after ciliogenesis in culture, even if the evaluation before ciliogenesis was normal. In case insufficient material was available for both evaluations, all material was brought into culture.

Bottom Line: To date, mutations in more than 20 different genes have been found.We compared the clinical characteristics, lung function, microbiology and imaging results of 68 patients with PCD and NU to those of 90 patients with dynein deficiencies and 41 patients with central pair abnormalities.Genetic analysis was performed in 29/68 patients with PCD and NU, and biallelic mutations were found in 79% (23/29) of tested patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Pulmonology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. mieke.boon@uzleuven.be.

ABSTRACT

Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare disorder with variable disease progression. To date, mutations in more than 20 different genes have been found. At present, PCD subtypes are described according to the ultrastructural defect on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the motile cilia. PCD with normal ultrastructure (NU) is rarely reported because it requires additional testing. Biallelic mutations in DNAH11 have been described as one cause of PCD with NU.The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics of a large population of patients with PCD, in relation to the ultrastructural defect. Additionally, we aimed to demonstrate the need for biopsy and cell culture to reliably diagnose PCD, especially the NU subtype.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 206 patients with PCD. We compared the clinical characteristics, lung function, microbiology and imaging results of 68 patients with PCD and NU to those of 90 patients with dynein deficiencies and 41 patients with central pair abnormalities. In addition, we aimed to demonstrate the robustness of the diagnosis of the NU subtype in cell culture by data from genetic analysis.

Results: PCD with NU comprised 33% (68/206) of all patients with PCD. Compared to other subtypes, patients with PCD and NU had a similar frequency of upper and lower respiratory tract problems, as well as similar lung function and imaging. With the currently widely applied approach, without cell culture, the diagnosis would have been missed in 16% (11/68) of patients with NU. Genetic analysis was performed in 29/68 patients with PCD and NU, and biallelic mutations were found in 79% (23/29) of tested patients.

Conclusions: We reported on the clinical characteristics of a large population of patients with PCD and NU. We have shown that systematic performance of biopsy and cell culture increases sensitivity to detect PCD, especially the subtype with NU.PCD with NU has similar clinical characteristics as other PCD types and requires biopsy plus ciliogenesis in culture for optimal diagnostic yield.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus