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An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

Yuan Y, Tang J, Leng D, Hu S, Yong JW, Chen X - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata.In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots.Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of AMF and AC treatments on the competition of S. canadensis (experiment 3).Competitive ability (as indicated by the aggressivity index) of S. canadensis as affected by AMF (AMF or No AMF) and activated carbon (AC or No AC) (experiment 3). A lower value for the index indicates greater competitive ability. Values are means ± SE. Means for No AC with different uppercase letters and means for AC with different lowercase letters are significantly different at P<0.05. For comparison of paired bars (No AC vs. AC), asterisks indicate significant differences (*<0.05), and ns indicates not significant.
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pone-0097163-g007: Effects of AMF and AC treatments on the competition of S. canadensis (experiment 3).Competitive ability (as indicated by the aggressivity index) of S. canadensis as affected by AMF (AMF or No AMF) and activated carbon (AC or No AC) (experiment 3). A lower value for the index indicates greater competitive ability. Values are means ± SE. Means for No AC with different uppercase letters and means for AC with different lowercase letters are significantly different at P<0.05. For comparison of paired bars (No AC vs. AC), asterisks indicate significant differences (*<0.05), and ns indicates not significant.

Mentions: When AMF were not added, AC did not affect the competitive ability (as indicated by AI values) of S. canadensis (F1,8 = 0.023, P = 0.745), i.e., the AI values were near zero with or without AC (Fig. 7). When AMF were added, S. canadensis AI values were lower (indicating higher competitive ability) without AC than with AC (F1,8 = 13.776, P = 0.012) (Fig. 7). Regardless of AC addition, AI values were much lower with AMF than without AMF (without AC, F1,8 = 17.851, P<0.001; with AC, F1,8 = 10.415, P<0.001) (Fig. 7).


An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

Yuan Y, Tang J, Leng D, Hu S, Yong JW, Chen X - PLoS ONE (2014)

Effects of AMF and AC treatments on the competition of S. canadensis (experiment 3).Competitive ability (as indicated by the aggressivity index) of S. canadensis as affected by AMF (AMF or No AMF) and activated carbon (AC or No AC) (experiment 3). A lower value for the index indicates greater competitive ability. Values are means ± SE. Means for No AC with different uppercase letters and means for AC with different lowercase letters are significantly different at P<0.05. For comparison of paired bars (No AC vs. AC), asterisks indicate significant differences (*<0.05), and ns indicates not significant.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4016281&req=5

pone-0097163-g007: Effects of AMF and AC treatments on the competition of S. canadensis (experiment 3).Competitive ability (as indicated by the aggressivity index) of S. canadensis as affected by AMF (AMF or No AMF) and activated carbon (AC or No AC) (experiment 3). A lower value for the index indicates greater competitive ability. Values are means ± SE. Means for No AC with different uppercase letters and means for AC with different lowercase letters are significantly different at P<0.05. For comparison of paired bars (No AC vs. AC), asterisks indicate significant differences (*<0.05), and ns indicates not significant.
Mentions: When AMF were not added, AC did not affect the competitive ability (as indicated by AI values) of S. canadensis (F1,8 = 0.023, P = 0.745), i.e., the AI values were near zero with or without AC (Fig. 7). When AMF were added, S. canadensis AI values were lower (indicating higher competitive ability) without AC than with AC (F1,8 = 13.776, P = 0.012) (Fig. 7). Regardless of AC addition, AI values were much lower with AMF than without AMF (without AC, F1,8 = 17.851, P<0.001; with AC, F1,8 = 10.415, P<0.001) (Fig. 7).

Bottom Line: Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata.In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots.Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus