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An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

Yuan Y, Tang J, Leng D, Hu S, Yong JW, Chen X - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata.In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots.Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

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Effects of AC on AMF spore density and colonization of S. canadensis (experiment 2).Spore density in soil (A) and colonization of S. canadensis roots (B) for five AMF species as affected by addition of activated carbon (AC) in experiment 2. Values are means ± SE. P-value: *<0.05; ns, not significant.
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pone-0097163-g004: Effects of AC on AMF spore density and colonization of S. canadensis (experiment 2).Spore density in soil (A) and colonization of S. canadensis roots (B) for five AMF species as affected by addition of activated carbon (AC) in experiment 2. Values are means ± SE. P-value: *<0.05; ns, not significant.

Mentions: Spore density in soil and colonization of S. canadensis roots were high for G. geosporum and G. versiforme in the absence of AC but were reduced (P<0.05) when AC was added (Fig. 4). Addition of AC increased (P<0.05) the spore density for G. mosseae and G. diaphanum (Fig. 4A). By contrast, the addition of AC did not significantly affect (P>0.05) spore density or colonization for G. etunicatum (Fig. 4).


An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

Yuan Y, Tang J, Leng D, Hu S, Yong JW, Chen X - PLoS ONE (2014)

Effects of AC on AMF spore density and colonization of S. canadensis (experiment 2).Spore density in soil (A) and colonization of S. canadensis roots (B) for five AMF species as affected by addition of activated carbon (AC) in experiment 2. Values are means ± SE. P-value: *<0.05; ns, not significant.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4016281&req=5

pone-0097163-g004: Effects of AC on AMF spore density and colonization of S. canadensis (experiment 2).Spore density in soil (A) and colonization of S. canadensis roots (B) for five AMF species as affected by addition of activated carbon (AC) in experiment 2. Values are means ± SE. P-value: *<0.05; ns, not significant.
Mentions: Spore density in soil and colonization of S. canadensis roots were high for G. geosporum and G. versiforme in the absence of AC but were reduced (P<0.05) when AC was added (Fig. 4). Addition of AC increased (P<0.05) the spore density for G. mosseae and G. diaphanum (Fig. 4A). By contrast, the addition of AC did not significantly affect (P>0.05) spore density or colonization for G. etunicatum (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata.In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots.Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus