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Characterization of pore structure in biologically functional poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PHEMA-PEGDA).

Zellander A, Zhao C, Kotecha M, Gemeinhart R, Wardlow M, Abiade J, Cho M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The water and sucrose porogens were effective in creating porous and cytocompatible PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds.The PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds are easy to produce, non-toxic, and mechanically stable enough to resist fracture during routine handling.The PHEMA-PEGDA structures presented in this study may expedite the current research effort to engineer tissue scaffolds that provide both structural stability and biological activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
A copolymer composed of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) (PHEMA-PEGDA) is structurally versatile. Its structure can be adjusted using the following porogens: water, sucrose, and benzyl alcohol. Using phase separation technique, a variety of surface architectures and pore morphologies were developed by adjusting porogen volume and type. The water and sucrose porogens were effective in creating porous and cytocompatible PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds. When coated with collagen, the PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds accommodated cell migration. The PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds are easy to produce, non-toxic, and mechanically stable enough to resist fracture during routine handling. The PHEMA-PEGDA structures presented in this study may expedite the current research effort to engineer tissue scaffolds that provide both structural stability and biological activity.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Tensile testing showed that the porogens can significantly alter the mechanical properties.The PHEMA-PEGDA made with water porogen was significantly stiffer than samples made with benzyl alcohol porogen. Low damping factors (tan (δ)) show that the PHEMA-PEGDA samples are viscoelastic with dominant elastic properties (B; n = 3). Tension was applied until rupture to determine the ductility and overall strength of the scaffolds (C). “X” marks the failure or rupture point of each sample. Horizontal bars identify samples with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05).
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pone-0096709-g002: Tensile testing showed that the porogens can significantly alter the mechanical properties.The PHEMA-PEGDA made with water porogen was significantly stiffer than samples made with benzyl alcohol porogen. Low damping factors (tan (δ)) show that the PHEMA-PEGDA samples are viscoelastic with dominant elastic properties (B; n = 3). Tension was applied until rupture to determine the ductility and overall strength of the scaffolds (C). “X” marks the failure or rupture point of each sample. Horizontal bars identify samples with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05).

Mentions: The porogen type influenced the mechanical properties of PHEMA-PEGDA. The PHEMA-PEGDA made with either water or sucrose porogen (designated W and S, respectively) was significantly stiffer (∼275 kPa) than the PHEMA-PEGDA made with benzyl alcohol porogen (BOH, ∼140 kPa; Fig. 2A). Damping factors (i.e., tan(δ)), measured at room temperature and at 1 mm/s strain rate, show that the porogens had a statistically significant effect on viscoelasticity. Note that damping factor, which is a function of temperature and frequency of strain application [11], for the sample made with sucrose porogen was significantly higher than that made with BOH. However, all three samples were found viscoelastic with dominant elastic properties (low energy loss; Fig. 2B). A perfectly elastic material would have a damping factor of 0 [11], [16]. The largely elastic PHEMA-PEGDA hydrogels are expected to maintain their mechanical properties during experimental handing involved in tissue engineering. For example, these samples comfortably resisted rupture at 25 kPa and 20% strain (Fig. 2C).


Characterization of pore structure in biologically functional poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PHEMA-PEGDA).

Zellander A, Zhao C, Kotecha M, Gemeinhart R, Wardlow M, Abiade J, Cho M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Tensile testing showed that the porogens can significantly alter the mechanical properties.The PHEMA-PEGDA made with water porogen was significantly stiffer than samples made with benzyl alcohol porogen. Low damping factors (tan (δ)) show that the PHEMA-PEGDA samples are viscoelastic with dominant elastic properties (B; n = 3). Tension was applied until rupture to determine the ductility and overall strength of the scaffolds (C). “X” marks the failure or rupture point of each sample. Horizontal bars identify samples with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4016039&req=5

pone-0096709-g002: Tensile testing showed that the porogens can significantly alter the mechanical properties.The PHEMA-PEGDA made with water porogen was significantly stiffer than samples made with benzyl alcohol porogen. Low damping factors (tan (δ)) show that the PHEMA-PEGDA samples are viscoelastic with dominant elastic properties (B; n = 3). Tension was applied until rupture to determine the ductility and overall strength of the scaffolds (C). “X” marks the failure or rupture point of each sample. Horizontal bars identify samples with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05).
Mentions: The porogen type influenced the mechanical properties of PHEMA-PEGDA. The PHEMA-PEGDA made with either water or sucrose porogen (designated W and S, respectively) was significantly stiffer (∼275 kPa) than the PHEMA-PEGDA made with benzyl alcohol porogen (BOH, ∼140 kPa; Fig. 2A). Damping factors (i.e., tan(δ)), measured at room temperature and at 1 mm/s strain rate, show that the porogens had a statistically significant effect on viscoelasticity. Note that damping factor, which is a function of temperature and frequency of strain application [11], for the sample made with sucrose porogen was significantly higher than that made with BOH. However, all three samples were found viscoelastic with dominant elastic properties (low energy loss; Fig. 2B). A perfectly elastic material would have a damping factor of 0 [11], [16]. The largely elastic PHEMA-PEGDA hydrogels are expected to maintain their mechanical properties during experimental handing involved in tissue engineering. For example, these samples comfortably resisted rupture at 25 kPa and 20% strain (Fig. 2C).

Bottom Line: The water and sucrose porogens were effective in creating porous and cytocompatible PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds.The PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds are easy to produce, non-toxic, and mechanically stable enough to resist fracture during routine handling.The PHEMA-PEGDA structures presented in this study may expedite the current research effort to engineer tissue scaffolds that provide both structural stability and biological activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
A copolymer composed of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) (PHEMA-PEGDA) is structurally versatile. Its structure can be adjusted using the following porogens: water, sucrose, and benzyl alcohol. Using phase separation technique, a variety of surface architectures and pore morphologies were developed by adjusting porogen volume and type. The water and sucrose porogens were effective in creating porous and cytocompatible PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds. When coated with collagen, the PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds accommodated cell migration. The PHEMA-PEGDA scaffolds are easy to produce, non-toxic, and mechanically stable enough to resist fracture during routine handling. The PHEMA-PEGDA structures presented in this study may expedite the current research effort to engineer tissue scaffolds that provide both structural stability and biological activity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus