Limits...
Geographic distribution and niche divergence of two stinkbugs, Parastrachia japonensis and Parastrachia nagaensis.

Zhu G, Liu G, Bu W, Lis JA - J. Insect Sci. (2013)

Bottom Line: Herein, the distribution of the genus was mapped, potential distributions were predicted using ecological niche modeling, and climate spaces occupied by the two species were identified and compared.Our outlined map supports the general spreading route proposed by Schaefer et al.The niche space inferred by ecological niche modeling suggests the two species do not occupy identical habitat, but the differences between their models could simply be due to the differential availability of habitat in the different regions that they occupy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Tianjin Key Laboratory of Animal and Plant Resistance, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China.

ABSTRACT
Parastrachiidae is a small stinkbug family containing only one genus and two species, Parastrachia japonensis (Scott) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea) and Parastrachia nagaensis Distant. The geographic distribution of the genus has been poorly studied. Niche conservatism refers to that idea that closely related species are more ecologically similar than would be expected, whereas niche divergence predicts they occupy distinct niche spaces. The existence of only two species within one genus suggests niche conservatism or differentiation might exist among them. Herein, the distribution of the genus was mapped, potential distributions were predicted using ecological niche modeling, and climate spaces occupied by the two species were identified and compared. Our outlined map supports the general spreading route proposed by Schaefer et al. The potential distributions suggest that the genus' range could extend beyond its presently known distribution, and further investigation into this area could aid in their conservation, particularly P. nagaensis. The niche space inferred by ecological niche modeling suggests the two species do not occupy identical habitat, but the differences between their models could simply be due to the differential availability of habitat in the different regions that they occupy.

Show MeSH
Two-dimensional visualization of the ecological niche of Parastrachia japonensis and P. nagaensis. Model predicted presence of P. japonensis (square) and P. nagaensis (triangle) according to the combinations of climate variables and the final predictions. High quality figures are available online.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4012745&req=5

f04_01: Two-dimensional visualization of the ecological niche of Parastrachia japonensis and P. nagaensis. Model predicted presence of P. japonensis (square) and P. nagaensis (triangle) according to the combinations of climate variables and the final predictions. High quality figures are available online.

Mentions: The model output of P. japonensis showed good performance compared to random expectation (AUC = 0.82); the omission rate at the conservative threshold of the tenth percentile training presence was 33.3%. The model of P. nagaensis as measured by the Pearson jackknife-based test procedure was significantly better than random expectations (p > 0.01) (Table 2). The suitability score at each occurrence point for P. nagaensis ranged from 0.26 to 0.83, while suitability for P. japonensis ranged from 0.06 to 0.95. Areas in central southern China and southern Japan showed high suitability for P. japonensis, while the eastern Taiwan, mainland of South Korea, and northern Japan were also suitable (Figure 3). Highly suitable areas identified by the model of P. nagaensis, including the southeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, western Mt. Qinling, Guizhou and Guangxi Provinces, eastern Indochina, and the disjunct areas in Heilongjiang and Iner-Monglia were also identified as suitable (Figure 3). Significant variables identified by the jackknife test for P. japonensis included precipitation in the driest month and the lowest weekly radiation. The jackknife test for P. nagaensis showed that highest weekly radiation was the most importantvariable. In the ecological dimensions, the 2 species occupied 2 distinct climate spaces (Figure 4), P. nagaensis occupied climate spaces of lower precipitation and higher temperatures compared to P. japonensis, suggesting it is more tolerant to dry and high temperature conditions.


Geographic distribution and niche divergence of two stinkbugs, Parastrachia japonensis and Parastrachia nagaensis.

Zhu G, Liu G, Bu W, Lis JA - J. Insect Sci. (2013)

Two-dimensional visualization of the ecological niche of Parastrachia japonensis and P. nagaensis. Model predicted presence of P. japonensis (square) and P. nagaensis (triangle) according to the combinations of climate variables and the final predictions. High quality figures are available online.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4012745&req=5

f04_01: Two-dimensional visualization of the ecological niche of Parastrachia japonensis and P. nagaensis. Model predicted presence of P. japonensis (square) and P. nagaensis (triangle) according to the combinations of climate variables and the final predictions. High quality figures are available online.
Mentions: The model output of P. japonensis showed good performance compared to random expectation (AUC = 0.82); the omission rate at the conservative threshold of the tenth percentile training presence was 33.3%. The model of P. nagaensis as measured by the Pearson jackknife-based test procedure was significantly better than random expectations (p > 0.01) (Table 2). The suitability score at each occurrence point for P. nagaensis ranged from 0.26 to 0.83, while suitability for P. japonensis ranged from 0.06 to 0.95. Areas in central southern China and southern Japan showed high suitability for P. japonensis, while the eastern Taiwan, mainland of South Korea, and northern Japan were also suitable (Figure 3). Highly suitable areas identified by the model of P. nagaensis, including the southeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, western Mt. Qinling, Guizhou and Guangxi Provinces, eastern Indochina, and the disjunct areas in Heilongjiang and Iner-Monglia were also identified as suitable (Figure 3). Significant variables identified by the jackknife test for P. japonensis included precipitation in the driest month and the lowest weekly radiation. The jackknife test for P. nagaensis showed that highest weekly radiation was the most importantvariable. In the ecological dimensions, the 2 species occupied 2 distinct climate spaces (Figure 4), P. nagaensis occupied climate spaces of lower precipitation and higher temperatures compared to P. japonensis, suggesting it is more tolerant to dry and high temperature conditions.

Bottom Line: Herein, the distribution of the genus was mapped, potential distributions were predicted using ecological niche modeling, and climate spaces occupied by the two species were identified and compared.Our outlined map supports the general spreading route proposed by Schaefer et al.The niche space inferred by ecological niche modeling suggests the two species do not occupy identical habitat, but the differences between their models could simply be due to the differential availability of habitat in the different regions that they occupy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1 Tianjin Key Laboratory of Animal and Plant Resistance, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China.

ABSTRACT
Parastrachiidae is a small stinkbug family containing only one genus and two species, Parastrachia japonensis (Scott) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea) and Parastrachia nagaensis Distant. The geographic distribution of the genus has been poorly studied. Niche conservatism refers to that idea that closely related species are more ecologically similar than would be expected, whereas niche divergence predicts they occupy distinct niche spaces. The existence of only two species within one genus suggests niche conservatism or differentiation might exist among them. Herein, the distribution of the genus was mapped, potential distributions were predicted using ecological niche modeling, and climate spaces occupied by the two species were identified and compared. Our outlined map supports the general spreading route proposed by Schaefer et al. The potential distributions suggest that the genus' range could extend beyond its presently known distribution, and further investigation into this area could aid in their conservation, particularly P. nagaensis. The niche space inferred by ecological niche modeling suggests the two species do not occupy identical habitat, but the differences between their models could simply be due to the differential availability of habitat in the different regions that they occupy.

Show MeSH