Limits...
Stress exacerbates infectivity and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: in vitro and in vivo evidences.

Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Sivanandam S, Kuppusamy UR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c).Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b).Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection.

Methods/findings: Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (a)control; (b)stress-induced; (c)B. hominis infected; (d)stress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n = 20 respectively). Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days) using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag). Group (b) exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d) had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c). Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d) were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c). Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b). Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b).

Conclusion: The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in stool surveys, namely in developing countries, may tend to be more pathogenic in stressful situations.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Levels of serum oxidative indices: a) AOPP, b) LHP, c) FRAP and d) GPx in the study groups according to study duration.Data is given in mean ± SD. *P<0.05 is the comparison done against Normal by Student's t-test. aP<0.05 and bP<0.05 is the comparison done against Stressed and Blasto group respectively using One-way ANOVA analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4008615&req=5

pone-0094567-g006: Levels of serum oxidative indices: a) AOPP, b) LHP, c) FRAP and d) GPx in the study groups according to study duration.Data is given in mean ± SD. *P<0.05 is the comparison done against Normal by Student's t-test. aP<0.05 and bP<0.05 is the comparison done against Stressed and Blasto group respectively using One-way ANOVA analysis.

Mentions: Figure 6 depicts the levels of AOPP, LHP, FRAP, and GPx in all the groups according to the weeks. Level of AOPP was significantly elevated in Stressed, Blasto, and Blasto-Stressed groups compared to the normal group especially in week 3 and 4 (P<0·05 respectively). Blasto-Stressed group showed the highest level of AOPP especially in the last two weeks of the experiment (Figure 6a). Similarly, level of LHP was the highest in Blasto-Stressed group compared to other study groups and the significant difference (P<0·05) was evident mainly in week 1 and 2 (Figure 6b). In contrast, FRAP level in all the three experimental groups was lower compared to the normal group (Figure 6c). FRAP level of Blasto-Stressed group was significantly higher than Stressed group in week 1 but decreased significantly in week 3 (P<0·05 respectively). GPx level in Blasto and Blasto-Stressed groups were generally lower compared to normal and stressed groups. During the final week of experiment, rats in the Blasto-Stressed group exhibited the lowest level of GPx compared to all other groups (P<0·05).


Stress exacerbates infectivity and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: in vitro and in vivo evidences.

Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Sivanandam S, Kuppusamy UR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Levels of serum oxidative indices: a) AOPP, b) LHP, c) FRAP and d) GPx in the study groups according to study duration.Data is given in mean ± SD. *P<0.05 is the comparison done against Normal by Student's t-test. aP<0.05 and bP<0.05 is the comparison done against Stressed and Blasto group respectively using One-way ANOVA analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4008615&req=5

pone-0094567-g006: Levels of serum oxidative indices: a) AOPP, b) LHP, c) FRAP and d) GPx in the study groups according to study duration.Data is given in mean ± SD. *P<0.05 is the comparison done against Normal by Student's t-test. aP<0.05 and bP<0.05 is the comparison done against Stressed and Blasto group respectively using One-way ANOVA analysis.
Mentions: Figure 6 depicts the levels of AOPP, LHP, FRAP, and GPx in all the groups according to the weeks. Level of AOPP was significantly elevated in Stressed, Blasto, and Blasto-Stressed groups compared to the normal group especially in week 3 and 4 (P<0·05 respectively). Blasto-Stressed group showed the highest level of AOPP especially in the last two weeks of the experiment (Figure 6a). Similarly, level of LHP was the highest in Blasto-Stressed group compared to other study groups and the significant difference (P<0·05) was evident mainly in week 1 and 2 (Figure 6b). In contrast, FRAP level in all the three experimental groups was lower compared to the normal group (Figure 6c). FRAP level of Blasto-Stressed group was significantly higher than Stressed group in week 1 but decreased significantly in week 3 (P<0·05 respectively). GPx level in Blasto and Blasto-Stressed groups were generally lower compared to normal and stressed groups. During the final week of experiment, rats in the Blasto-Stressed group exhibited the lowest level of GPx compared to all other groups (P<0·05).

Bottom Line: Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c).Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b).Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection.

Methods/findings: Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (a)control; (b)stress-induced; (c)B. hominis infected; (d)stress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n = 20 respectively). Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days) using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag). Group (b) exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d) had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c). Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d) were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c). Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b). Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b).

Conclusion: The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in stool surveys, namely in developing countries, may tend to be more pathogenic in stressful situations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus