Limits...
Stress exacerbates infectivity and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: in vitro and in vivo evidences.

Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Sivanandam S, Kuppusamy UR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c).Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b).Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection.

Methods/findings: Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (a)control; (b)stress-induced; (c)B. hominis infected; (d)stress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n = 20 respectively). Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days) using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag). Group (b) exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d) had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c). Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d) were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c). Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b). Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b).

Conclusion: The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in stool surveys, namely in developing countries, may tend to be more pathogenic in stressful situations.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Cyst count in Blasto and Blasto-Stressed groups according to study duration.Data shown is total number of cysts recovered from 3 stool pellets from each rat (n = 5). Results are expressed as mean ± SD. *P<0.05 is the comparison done against Blasto group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4008615&req=5

pone-0094567-g002: Cyst count in Blasto and Blasto-Stressed groups according to study duration.Data shown is total number of cysts recovered from 3 stool pellets from each rat (n = 5). Results are expressed as mean ± SD. *P<0.05 is the comparison done against Blasto group.

Mentions: In present study, the control group (without stress and B. hominis infection) was labelled as ‘Normal’, stress-induced group as ‘Stressed’, B. hominis infected group (without stress) as ‘Blasto’, and both stress-induced along with B. hominis infection as ‘Blasto-Stressed’. The mean weight gained in each week for all groups were compared with week 1 (Figure 1). All groups showed a significant increase in weight gain at week 4 (P<0·05) when compared to week 2. Stressed group showed the highest level of weight gain followed by Normal, Blasto, and Blasto-Stressed. The cyst count in both Blasto and Blasto-Stressed groups showed a gradual increase over the four weeks (Figure 2). The Blasto-Stressed group had significantly higher number of cysts compared to the Blasto group at week 3 and week 4 (P<0·05 respectively). Irregular shedding of B. hominis has been reported previously [30]. It is noteworthy that we observed absence or irregular cyst shedding only in some of the rats especially during the first two weeks of the study. However, the irregular shedding effect among these two study groups were normalized by expressing the mean value of cyst count obtained from 5 rats per group/week.


Stress exacerbates infectivity and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: in vitro and in vivo evidences.

Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Sivanandam S, Kuppusamy UR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Cyst count in Blasto and Blasto-Stressed groups according to study duration.Data shown is total number of cysts recovered from 3 stool pellets from each rat (n = 5). Results are expressed as mean ± SD. *P<0.05 is the comparison done against Blasto group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4008615&req=5

pone-0094567-g002: Cyst count in Blasto and Blasto-Stressed groups according to study duration.Data shown is total number of cysts recovered from 3 stool pellets from each rat (n = 5). Results are expressed as mean ± SD. *P<0.05 is the comparison done against Blasto group.
Mentions: In present study, the control group (without stress and B. hominis infection) was labelled as ‘Normal’, stress-induced group as ‘Stressed’, B. hominis infected group (without stress) as ‘Blasto’, and both stress-induced along with B. hominis infection as ‘Blasto-Stressed’. The mean weight gained in each week for all groups were compared with week 1 (Figure 1). All groups showed a significant increase in weight gain at week 4 (P<0·05) when compared to week 2. Stressed group showed the highest level of weight gain followed by Normal, Blasto, and Blasto-Stressed. The cyst count in both Blasto and Blasto-Stressed groups showed a gradual increase over the four weeks (Figure 2). The Blasto-Stressed group had significantly higher number of cysts compared to the Blasto group at week 3 and week 4 (P<0·05 respectively). Irregular shedding of B. hominis has been reported previously [30]. It is noteworthy that we observed absence or irregular cyst shedding only in some of the rats especially during the first two weeks of the study. However, the irregular shedding effect among these two study groups were normalized by expressing the mean value of cyst count obtained from 5 rats per group/week.

Bottom Line: Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c).Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b).Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection.

Methods/findings: Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (a)control; (b)stress-induced; (c)B. hominis infected; (d)stress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n = 20 respectively). Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days) using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag). Group (b) exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d) had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c). Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d) were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b) showed insignificant difference compared to group (a) but was significantly lower compared to group (c). Antioxidant levels in group (c) were generally lower compared to group (a) and (b). Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c) was higher compared to group (a) and (b).

Conclusion: The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in stool surveys, namely in developing countries, may tend to be more pathogenic in stressful situations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus