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Female reproductive aging is master-planned at the level of ovary.

Banerjee S, Banerjee S, Saraswat G, Bandyopadhyay SA, Kabir SN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors.Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity.We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Reproductive Biology Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

ABSTRACT
The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size.

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Ovarian histology.Histological picture of one representative ovary from 35-day old control (A) and GalTase- treated (B) rats. The control ovary exhibits the presence of follicles at different stages of maturity. The GalTase treated ovary exhibits an infantile appearance with a deficient follicular reserve and preponderance of atretic follicles. 1. Primordial, 2. Growing, 3. Antral, and 4. Atretic follicles. Each image is one representative of five independent ovaries of the respective groups; bar = 500 µm.
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pone-0096210-g001: Ovarian histology.Histological picture of one representative ovary from 35-day old control (A) and GalTase- treated (B) rats. The control ovary exhibits the presence of follicles at different stages of maturity. The GalTase treated ovary exhibits an infantile appearance with a deficient follicular reserve and preponderance of atretic follicles. 1. Primordial, 2. Growing, 3. Antral, and 4. Atretic follicles. Each image is one representative of five independent ovaries of the respective groups; bar = 500 µm.

Mentions: The histological observation demonstrated that ovarian sections of control rats (Fig. 1A) contained follicles at different stages of maturation. In contrast, reduced ovarian mass, absence of graafian follicle and arrested follicles at the early pre-antral stage were generalized findings in the GalTase-antibody (GalTase-Ab)-treated ovary (Fig. 1B). The reduction in follicle number and presence of a large number of pyknotic granulosa cells, arranged in a single symmetric ring adjacent to the basement membrane and offering the structure of a string of beads, marked the preponderance of atretic cells in the GalTase-Ab-exposed group.


Female reproductive aging is master-planned at the level of ovary.

Banerjee S, Banerjee S, Saraswat G, Bandyopadhyay SA, Kabir SN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Ovarian histology.Histological picture of one representative ovary from 35-day old control (A) and GalTase- treated (B) rats. The control ovary exhibits the presence of follicles at different stages of maturity. The GalTase treated ovary exhibits an infantile appearance with a deficient follicular reserve and preponderance of atretic follicles. 1. Primordial, 2. Growing, 3. Antral, and 4. Atretic follicles. Each image is one representative of five independent ovaries of the respective groups; bar = 500 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4008600&req=5

pone-0096210-g001: Ovarian histology.Histological picture of one representative ovary from 35-day old control (A) and GalTase- treated (B) rats. The control ovary exhibits the presence of follicles at different stages of maturity. The GalTase treated ovary exhibits an infantile appearance with a deficient follicular reserve and preponderance of atretic follicles. 1. Primordial, 2. Growing, 3. Antral, and 4. Atretic follicles. Each image is one representative of five independent ovaries of the respective groups; bar = 500 µm.
Mentions: The histological observation demonstrated that ovarian sections of control rats (Fig. 1A) contained follicles at different stages of maturation. In contrast, reduced ovarian mass, absence of graafian follicle and arrested follicles at the early pre-antral stage were generalized findings in the GalTase-antibody (GalTase-Ab)-treated ovary (Fig. 1B). The reduction in follicle number and presence of a large number of pyknotic granulosa cells, arranged in a single symmetric ring adjacent to the basement membrane and offering the structure of a string of beads, marked the preponderance of atretic cells in the GalTase-Ab-exposed group.

Bottom Line: As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors.Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity.We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Reproductive Biology Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

ABSTRACT
The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus