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Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

Mikó I, Copeland RS, Balhoff JP, Yoder MJ, Deans AR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing.While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation.The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

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Brightfield images of the head and the mesosoma of Trissevania species, dorsal view, anterior to the left.A: Trissevania anemotis Kieffer 1913. B: Trissevania slideri sp. nov.
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pone-0094056-g007: Brightfield images of the head and the mesosoma of Trissevania species, dorsal view, anterior to the left.A: Trissevania anemotis Kieffer 1913. B: Trissevania slideri sp. nov.

Mentions: Facial striae presence: present (fs: Fig. 6A); Malar distance vs. eye height: eye 1.5× as high as malar distance (Fig. 6A); Female OOL vs. LOL: OOL 1.9–2.1× as long as LOL (Fig. 7A); Antenna pilosity: thin, appressed, brownish (Figs 6A, 7A)…Trissevania anemotis Kieffer, 1913- Facial striae presence: absent (Fig. 6B); Malar distance vs. eye height: eye 2.0× as high as malar distance (Fig. 6B); Female OOL vs. LOL: OOL 1.0–1.1× as LOL (Fig. 7B); Antenna pilosity: thick, semierect, whitish (Figs 6A, 7A)…3


Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

Mikó I, Copeland RS, Balhoff JP, Yoder MJ, Deans AR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Brightfield images of the head and the mesosoma of Trissevania species, dorsal view, anterior to the left.A: Trissevania anemotis Kieffer 1913. B: Trissevania slideri sp. nov.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4008374&req=5

pone-0094056-g007: Brightfield images of the head and the mesosoma of Trissevania species, dorsal view, anterior to the left.A: Trissevania anemotis Kieffer 1913. B: Trissevania slideri sp. nov.
Mentions: Facial striae presence: present (fs: Fig. 6A); Malar distance vs. eye height: eye 1.5× as high as malar distance (Fig. 6A); Female OOL vs. LOL: OOL 1.9–2.1× as long as LOL (Fig. 7A); Antenna pilosity: thin, appressed, brownish (Figs 6A, 7A)…Trissevania anemotis Kieffer, 1913- Facial striae presence: absent (Fig. 6B); Malar distance vs. eye height: eye 2.0× as high as malar distance (Fig. 6B); Female OOL vs. LOL: OOL 1.0–1.1× as LOL (Fig. 7B); Antenna pilosity: thick, semierect, whitish (Figs 6A, 7A)…3

Bottom Line: Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing.While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation.The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

Show MeSH