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Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

Mikó I, Copeland RS, Balhoff JP, Yoder MJ, Deans AR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing.While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation.The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

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Brigthfield images of Afrevania longipetiolata, anterior to the left.A: Head and mesosoma, lateral view. B: Dorsal region of the metapectal-propodeal complex, lateral view. C: Habitus, posterodorsal view. D: Posterolateral region of the metapectal-propodeal complex, posterodorsal view.
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pone-0094056-g004: Brigthfield images of Afrevania longipetiolata, anterior to the left.A: Head and mesosoma, lateral view. B: Dorsal region of the metapectal-propodeal complex, lateral view. C: Habitus, posterodorsal view. D: Posterolateral region of the metapectal-propodeal complex, posterodorsal view.

Mentions: Mesoscutellum posterior margin vs. metapectal-propodeal complex anterior margin medially: Posterior margin of mesoscutellum adjacent medially to anterior margin of metapectal-propodeal complex (msc, dap: Fig. 3C). Metanoto-metapectal-propodeal complex conjunctiva count: absent (metanotum and metapectal-propodeal complex fused). Dorsolateral setal patch of the metapectal-propodeal complex count: present (dsp: Figs 3C, 4A, C). Anterodistal notch of the fore wing count: present (anf: Fig. 2B). Posterodistal notch of the fore wing count: present (pnf: 2B). Prestigmal fold line count: present (pfl: Figs 2A, 5B). Discal fold line count: present (dfl: Figs 2A, 5B). Anal-marginal fold line count: present (afl: Figs 2A, 5B). Poststigmal fold line count: present (sfl: Figs 2A, 5B).


Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

Mikó I, Copeland RS, Balhoff JP, Yoder MJ, Deans AR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Brigthfield images of Afrevania longipetiolata, anterior to the left.A: Head and mesosoma, lateral view. B: Dorsal region of the metapectal-propodeal complex, lateral view. C: Habitus, posterodorsal view. D: Posterolateral region of the metapectal-propodeal complex, posterodorsal view.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4008374&req=5

pone-0094056-g004: Brigthfield images of Afrevania longipetiolata, anterior to the left.A: Head and mesosoma, lateral view. B: Dorsal region of the metapectal-propodeal complex, lateral view. C: Habitus, posterodorsal view. D: Posterolateral region of the metapectal-propodeal complex, posterodorsal view.
Mentions: Mesoscutellum posterior margin vs. metapectal-propodeal complex anterior margin medially: Posterior margin of mesoscutellum adjacent medially to anterior margin of metapectal-propodeal complex (msc, dap: Fig. 3C). Metanoto-metapectal-propodeal complex conjunctiva count: absent (metanotum and metapectal-propodeal complex fused). Dorsolateral setal patch of the metapectal-propodeal complex count: present (dsp: Figs 3C, 4A, C). Anterodistal notch of the fore wing count: present (anf: Fig. 2B). Posterodistal notch of the fore wing count: present (pnf: 2B). Prestigmal fold line count: present (pfl: Figs 2A, 5B). Discal fold line count: present (dfl: Figs 2A, 5B). Anal-marginal fold line count: present (afl: Figs 2A, 5B). Poststigmal fold line count: present (sfl: Figs 2A, 5B).

Bottom Line: Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing.While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation.The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

Show MeSH