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Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

Mikó I, Copeland RS, Balhoff JP, Yoder MJ, Deans AR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing.While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation.The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

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CLSM micrographs of the right wing base of Evaniidae (anterior to the top).A: Evania albofascialis. B: Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov.
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pone-0094056-g001: CLSM micrographs of the right wing base of Evaniidae (anterior to the top).A: Evania albofascialis. B: Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov.

Mentions: Anatomical structures were visualized with bright field, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Bright field images were taken with an Olympus DP71 digital camera attached to an Olympus ZX41 compound microscope and subsequently processed with CombineZM [15] executing the “do stack” command. CLSM images were taken on glycerin-stored specimens with Zeiss LSM 710 Confocal Microscope. We used an excitation wavelength of 488 and an emission wavelength of 510–680 nm, detected using two channels and visualized separately with two pseudocolors (510–580 nm = green; 580–680 nm = red; Figs 1A, B). To visualizing resilin we used an excitation wavelength of 405 nm and an emission wavelength of 510–680 nm, detected on one channel and visualized with a blue pseudocolor (Fig. 2A). The single SEM image was taken with FEI Nova 400 NanoSEM (Florida State University) on Au-Pd coated specimens. To facilitate understanding of the wing folding mechanism in Trissevaniini, and to demonstrate the rich flexion line system of the tribe relative to that of other Evaniidae, we have created a print-cut-fold model of the fore wing of Trissevania anemotis and Evania albofascialis. (Figure S1). Images and volume rendered media files were deposited at Figshare (http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.961802) and at Morphbank (http://www.morphbank.net/?id=835698). Abbreviations of anatomical structures used in Figures are listed in Table S2.


Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

Mikó I, Copeland RS, Balhoff JP, Yoder MJ, Deans AR - PLoS ONE (2014)

CLSM micrographs of the right wing base of Evaniidae (anterior to the top).A: Evania albofascialis. B: Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4008374&req=5

pone-0094056-g001: CLSM micrographs of the right wing base of Evaniidae (anterior to the top).A: Evania albofascialis. B: Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov.
Mentions: Anatomical structures were visualized with bright field, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Bright field images were taken with an Olympus DP71 digital camera attached to an Olympus ZX41 compound microscope and subsequently processed with CombineZM [15] executing the “do stack” command. CLSM images were taken on glycerin-stored specimens with Zeiss LSM 710 Confocal Microscope. We used an excitation wavelength of 488 and an emission wavelength of 510–680 nm, detected using two channels and visualized separately with two pseudocolors (510–580 nm = green; 580–680 nm = red; Figs 1A, B). To visualizing resilin we used an excitation wavelength of 405 nm and an emission wavelength of 510–680 nm, detected on one channel and visualized with a blue pseudocolor (Fig. 2A). The single SEM image was taken with FEI Nova 400 NanoSEM (Florida State University) on Au-Pd coated specimens. To facilitate understanding of the wing folding mechanism in Trissevaniini, and to demonstrate the rich flexion line system of the tribe relative to that of other Evaniidae, we have created a print-cut-fold model of the fore wing of Trissevania anemotis and Evania albofascialis. (Figure S1). Images and volume rendered media files were deposited at Figshare (http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.961802) and at Morphbank (http://www.morphbank.net/?id=835698). Abbreviations of anatomical structures used in Figures are listed in Table S2.

Bottom Line: Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing.While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation.The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

Show MeSH