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Leprosy: review of the epidemiological, clinical, and etiopathogenic aspects - part 1.

Lastória JC, Abreu MA - An Bras Dermatol (2014 Mar-Apr)

Bottom Line: Transmission occurs through inhalation of bacilli present in upper airway secretion.The nasal mucosa is the main entry or exit route of M. leprae.The deeper understanding of the structural and biological characteristics of M. leprae, the sequencing of its genome, along with the advances in understanding the mechanisms of host immune response against the bacilli, dependent on genetic susceptibility, have contributed to the understanding of the pathogenesis, variations in the clinical characteristics, and progression of the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae and has been known since biblical times. It is still endemic in many regions of the world and a public health problem in Brazil. The prevalence rate in 2011 reached 1.54 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in Brazil. The mechanism of transmission of leprosy consists of prolonged close contact between susceptible and genetically predisposed individuals and untreated multibacillary patients. Transmission occurs through inhalation of bacilli present in upper airway secretion. The nasal mucosa is the main entry or exit route of M. leprae. The deeper understanding of the structural and biological characteristics of M. leprae, the sequencing of its genome, along with the advances in understanding the mechanisms of host immune response against the bacilli, dependent on genetic susceptibility, have contributed to the understanding of the pathogenesis, variations in the clinical characteristics, and progression of the disease. This article aims to update dermatologist on epidemiological, clinical, and etiopathogenic leprosy aspects.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Borderline leprosy: polymorphic appearance of the lesions
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f06: Borderline leprosy: polymorphic appearance of the lesions

Mentions: The borderline group has different clinical manifestations because of varying degreesof cellular immune response to M. leprae (Figures 6, 7 and 8). The skin lesions of the BT subgroup resemblethe TT form in terms of appearance and loss of sensitivity, but they occur in alarger number and are smaller. Nerve thickening tends to be irregular, less intense,and appears in a larger number. The skin lesions of the BB subgroup exhibitcharacteristics of the TT and LL forms, with asymmetrical distribution and moderatenerve impairment. The presence of erythematous plaques with fading outer borders,clear inner borders, and hypopigmented oval center (foveal spot) is suggestive of theBB subgroup. The skin lesions of the BL subgroup resemble the LL form, tending tooccur in a large number, but not so symmetrical and with loss of sensation in someareas.93


Leprosy: review of the epidemiological, clinical, and etiopathogenic aspects - part 1.

Lastória JC, Abreu MA - An Bras Dermatol (2014 Mar-Apr)

Borderline leprosy: polymorphic appearance of the lesions
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4008049&req=5

f06: Borderline leprosy: polymorphic appearance of the lesions
Mentions: The borderline group has different clinical manifestations because of varying degreesof cellular immune response to M. leprae (Figures 6, 7 and 8). The skin lesions of the BT subgroup resemblethe TT form in terms of appearance and loss of sensitivity, but they occur in alarger number and are smaller. Nerve thickening tends to be irregular, less intense,and appears in a larger number. The skin lesions of the BB subgroup exhibitcharacteristics of the TT and LL forms, with asymmetrical distribution and moderatenerve impairment. The presence of erythematous plaques with fading outer borders,clear inner borders, and hypopigmented oval center (foveal spot) is suggestive of theBB subgroup. The skin lesions of the BL subgroup resemble the LL form, tending tooccur in a large number, but not so symmetrical and with loss of sensation in someareas.93

Bottom Line: Transmission occurs through inhalation of bacilli present in upper airway secretion.The nasal mucosa is the main entry or exit route of M. leprae.The deeper understanding of the structural and biological characteristics of M. leprae, the sequencing of its genome, along with the advances in understanding the mechanisms of host immune response against the bacilli, dependent on genetic susceptibility, have contributed to the understanding of the pathogenesis, variations in the clinical characteristics, and progression of the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae and has been known since biblical times. It is still endemic in many regions of the world and a public health problem in Brazil. The prevalence rate in 2011 reached 1.54 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in Brazil. The mechanism of transmission of leprosy consists of prolonged close contact between susceptible and genetically predisposed individuals and untreated multibacillary patients. Transmission occurs through inhalation of bacilli present in upper airway secretion. The nasal mucosa is the main entry or exit route of M. leprae. The deeper understanding of the structural and biological characteristics of M. leprae, the sequencing of its genome, along with the advances in understanding the mechanisms of host immune response against the bacilli, dependent on genetic susceptibility, have contributed to the understanding of the pathogenesis, variations in the clinical characteristics, and progression of the disease. This article aims to update dermatologist on epidemiological, clinical, and etiopathogenic leprosy aspects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus