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Integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics decipher differences in the resistance of pedunculate oak to the herbivore Tortrix viridana L.

Kersten B, Ghirardo A, Schnitzler JP, Kanawati B, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Fladung M, Schroeder H - BMC Genomics (2013)

Bottom Line: Next generation RNA sequencing revealed hundreds of genes that exhibited constitutive and/or inducible differential expression in the resistant oak compared to the susceptible oak.We conclude that the resistant oak type seem to prefer a strategy of constitutive defence responses in contrast to more induced defence responses of the susceptible oaks triggered by feeding.These results pave the way for the development of biomarkers for an early determination of potentially green oak leaf roller-resistant genotypes in natural pedunculate oak populations in Europe.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Thünen Institute of Forest Genetics, Sieker Landstrasse 2, D-22927, Grosshansdorf, Germany. hilke.schroeder@ti.bund.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: The interaction between insect pests and their host plants is a never-ending race of evolutionary adaption. Plants have developed an armament against insect herbivore attacks, and attackers continuously learn how to address it. Using a combined transcriptomic and metabolomic approach, we investigated the molecular and biochemical differences between Quercus robur L. trees that resisted (defined as resistant oak type) or were susceptible (defined as susceptible oak type) to infestation by the major oak pest, Tortrix viridana L.

Results: Next generation RNA sequencing revealed hundreds of genes that exhibited constitutive and/or inducible differential expression in the resistant oak compared to the susceptible oak. Distinct differences were found in the transcript levels and the metabolic content with regard to tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids, which are compounds involved in the defence against insect pests. The results of our transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses are in agreement with those of a previous study in which we showed that female moths prefer susceptible oaks due to their specific profile of herbivore-induced volatiles. These data therefore define two oak genotypes that clearly differ on the transcriptomic and metabolomic levels, as reflected by their specific defensive compound profiles.

Conclusions: We conclude that the resistant oak type seem to prefer a strategy of constitutive defence responses in contrast to more induced defence responses of the susceptible oaks triggered by feeding. These results pave the way for the development of biomarkers for an early determination of potentially green oak leaf roller-resistant genotypes in natural pedunculate oak populations in Europe.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Transcript levels of cell wall degrading enzymes in T- and S-oak controls. Expression values (RPKM) of transcripts assigned by MapMan to the cell wall degradation BIN are presented for T-oak controls (red) and S-oak controls (blue). Only transcripts where the sum of RPKM values of T- and S-oak controls was at least 10 are presented. Arrows mark transcripts with log2 fold changes ≥ 1.5 when comparing expression values of T- with S-oak controls.
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Figure 4: Transcript levels of cell wall degrading enzymes in T- and S-oak controls. Expression values (RPKM) of transcripts assigned by MapMan to the cell wall degradation BIN are presented for T-oak controls (red) and S-oak controls (blue). Only transcripts where the sum of RPKM values of T- and S-oak controls was at least 10 are presented. Arrows mark transcripts with log2 fold changes ≥ 1.5 when comparing expression values of T- with S-oak controls.

Mentions: Figure 4 shows the expression values of all transcripts that were assigned to the cell wall degradation BIN and that exceeded a specific expression value in the T-oak controls (red bars) and S-oak controls (blue bars). Most of the transcripts showed higher expression values in T-oaks than in S-oaks (Figure 4; all transcripts with clearly higher expression in T-oaks compared to S-oaks were marked by a star; log2 fold change ≥ 1.5).


Integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics decipher differences in the resistance of pedunculate oak to the herbivore Tortrix viridana L.

Kersten B, Ghirardo A, Schnitzler JP, Kanawati B, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Fladung M, Schroeder H - BMC Genomics (2013)

Transcript levels of cell wall degrading enzymes in T- and S-oak controls. Expression values (RPKM) of transcripts assigned by MapMan to the cell wall degradation BIN are presented for T-oak controls (red) and S-oak controls (blue). Only transcripts where the sum of RPKM values of T- and S-oak controls was at least 10 are presented. Arrows mark transcripts with log2 fold changes ≥ 1.5 when comparing expression values of T- with S-oak controls.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4007517&req=5

Figure 4: Transcript levels of cell wall degrading enzymes in T- and S-oak controls. Expression values (RPKM) of transcripts assigned by MapMan to the cell wall degradation BIN are presented for T-oak controls (red) and S-oak controls (blue). Only transcripts where the sum of RPKM values of T- and S-oak controls was at least 10 are presented. Arrows mark transcripts with log2 fold changes ≥ 1.5 when comparing expression values of T- with S-oak controls.
Mentions: Figure 4 shows the expression values of all transcripts that were assigned to the cell wall degradation BIN and that exceeded a specific expression value in the T-oak controls (red bars) and S-oak controls (blue bars). Most of the transcripts showed higher expression values in T-oaks than in S-oaks (Figure 4; all transcripts with clearly higher expression in T-oaks compared to S-oaks were marked by a star; log2 fold change ≥ 1.5).

Bottom Line: Next generation RNA sequencing revealed hundreds of genes that exhibited constitutive and/or inducible differential expression in the resistant oak compared to the susceptible oak.We conclude that the resistant oak type seem to prefer a strategy of constitutive defence responses in contrast to more induced defence responses of the susceptible oaks triggered by feeding.These results pave the way for the development of biomarkers for an early determination of potentially green oak leaf roller-resistant genotypes in natural pedunculate oak populations in Europe.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Thünen Institute of Forest Genetics, Sieker Landstrasse 2, D-22927, Grosshansdorf, Germany. hilke.schroeder@ti.bund.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: The interaction between insect pests and their host plants is a never-ending race of evolutionary adaption. Plants have developed an armament against insect herbivore attacks, and attackers continuously learn how to address it. Using a combined transcriptomic and metabolomic approach, we investigated the molecular and biochemical differences between Quercus robur L. trees that resisted (defined as resistant oak type) or were susceptible (defined as susceptible oak type) to infestation by the major oak pest, Tortrix viridana L.

Results: Next generation RNA sequencing revealed hundreds of genes that exhibited constitutive and/or inducible differential expression in the resistant oak compared to the susceptible oak. Distinct differences were found in the transcript levels and the metabolic content with regard to tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids, which are compounds involved in the defence against insect pests. The results of our transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses are in agreement with those of a previous study in which we showed that female moths prefer susceptible oaks due to their specific profile of herbivore-induced volatiles. These data therefore define two oak genotypes that clearly differ on the transcriptomic and metabolomic levels, as reflected by their specific defensive compound profiles.

Conclusions: We conclude that the resistant oak type seem to prefer a strategy of constitutive defence responses in contrast to more induced defence responses of the susceptible oaks triggered by feeding. These results pave the way for the development of biomarkers for an early determination of potentially green oak leaf roller-resistant genotypes in natural pedunculate oak populations in Europe.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus