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Increase in sphingolipid catabolic enzyme activity during aging.

Sacket SJ, Chung HY, Okajima F, Im DS - Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2009)

Bottom Line: The activities of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes were significantly elevated in all tested tissues during development and aging, although the onset of significant increase in activity varied on the tissue and enzyme type.During aging, 18 out of 21 enzyme activities were further increased on day 720 compared to day 180.Differential increases in sphingolipid metabolic enzyme activities suggest that sphingolipids including ceramide and sphingosine might play important and dynamic roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development and aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratories of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy (BK21 Project) and Longevity Institute of Life Science and Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT

Aim: To understand the contribution of sphingolipid metabolism and its metabolites to development and aging.

Methods: A systemic analysis on the changes in activity of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes in kidney, liver and brain tissues during development and aging was conducted. The study was conducted using tissues from 1-day-old to 720-day-old rats.

Results: Catabolic enzyme activities as well as the level of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and ceramidase (CDase) were higher than that of anabolic enzyme activities, sphingomyelin synthase and ceramide synthase. This suggested an accumulation of ceramide and sphingosine during development and aging. The liver showed the highest neutral-SMase activity among the tested enzymes while the kidney and brain exhibited higher neutral-SMase and ceramidase activities, indicating a high production of ceramide in liver and ceramide/sphingosine in the kidney and brain. The activities of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes were significantly elevated in all tested tissues during development and aging, although the onset of significant increase in activity varied on the tissue and enzyme type. During aging, 18 out of 21 enzyme activities were further increased on day 720 compared to day 180.

Conclusion: Differential increases in sphingolipid metabolic enzyme activities suggest that sphingolipids including ceramide and sphingosine might play important and dynamic roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development and aging.

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SMase activity in rat kidney, liver and brain tissues. N-SMase (A) and A-SMase (B) activities were measured from 7-day, 21-day, 42-day, 180-day, 510-day, and 720-day-old rat kidney, liver and brain tissues. Rat tissue homogenates were incubated with [N-methyl-14C]–sphingomyelin. Lipids were extracted and radioactivity of reaction product 14C-choline phosphate counted in a liquid scintillation counter. Acidic and neutral sphingomyelinases: A-SMase & N-SMase.
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fig1: SMase activity in rat kidney, liver and brain tissues. N-SMase (A) and A-SMase (B) activities were measured from 7-day, 21-day, 42-day, 180-day, 510-day, and 720-day-old rat kidney, liver and brain tissues. Rat tissue homogenates were incubated with [N-methyl-14C]–sphingomyelin. Lipids were extracted and radioactivity of reaction product 14C-choline phosphate counted in a liquid scintillation counter. Acidic and neutral sphingomyelinases: A-SMase & N-SMase.

Mentions: Since 180-day-old tissue was used as the representative young adult tissue in the present study, activity changes in each enzyme from 1-day to 180-day-old tissues were analyzed as developmental changes, while the changes from 180-day to 720-day-old-tissues were categorized as aging-dependent changes. N-SMase and A-SMase activities were measured in rat kidney, liver and brain tissue homogenates. In the liver, both activities increased significantly from day 42, in comparison to the 1-day-old tissue (Figure 1 and Table 1). N-SMase was further increased in the 720-day-old tissue compared to 180-day but no changes were observed in A-SMase from day 180 (Figure 1 and Table 2). N-SMase activity in liver was higher than that of the kidney and brain (Figure 1A). In brain, N-SMase increased significantly from day 42, while A-SMase from day 180 (Figure 1 and Table 1). In the kidney, both activities increased from day 180. A-SMase activities in the brain and kidney tissues from day 720 increased significantly, compared to the respective 180-day- and 520-day-old tissues (Figure 1B and Table 2). N-SMase activities in the 710-day-old kidney tissue increased compared to the 180-day-old tissue but not in the brain (Figure 1A and Table 2). However, A-SMase activity was relatively lower than N-SMase in all the tested tissues. For example, N-SMase activities of kidney, liver and brain tissues at 710-days were about 9-fold, 49-fold and 20-fold higher than that of A-SMase activities from each respective tissue. Nevertheless, the increase in activity of A-SMase appeared to be dependent on aging after 180 days in the kidney and brain tissues. This implied practical roles of A-SMase during aging in the kidney and brain. In the liver, however, N-SMase might play a more significant role during aging based on its relatively higher activity among the different tissues and its further increase during aging.


Increase in sphingolipid catabolic enzyme activity during aging.

Sacket SJ, Chung HY, Okajima F, Im DS - Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2009)

SMase activity in rat kidney, liver and brain tissues. N-SMase (A) and A-SMase (B) activities were measured from 7-day, 21-day, 42-day, 180-day, 510-day, and 720-day-old rat kidney, liver and brain tissues. Rat tissue homogenates were incubated with [N-methyl-14C]–sphingomyelin. Lipids were extracted and radioactivity of reaction product 14C-choline phosphate counted in a liquid scintillation counter. Acidic and neutral sphingomyelinases: A-SMase & N-SMase.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4007327&req=5

fig1: SMase activity in rat kidney, liver and brain tissues. N-SMase (A) and A-SMase (B) activities were measured from 7-day, 21-day, 42-day, 180-day, 510-day, and 720-day-old rat kidney, liver and brain tissues. Rat tissue homogenates were incubated with [N-methyl-14C]–sphingomyelin. Lipids were extracted and radioactivity of reaction product 14C-choline phosphate counted in a liquid scintillation counter. Acidic and neutral sphingomyelinases: A-SMase & N-SMase.
Mentions: Since 180-day-old tissue was used as the representative young adult tissue in the present study, activity changes in each enzyme from 1-day to 180-day-old tissues were analyzed as developmental changes, while the changes from 180-day to 720-day-old-tissues were categorized as aging-dependent changes. N-SMase and A-SMase activities were measured in rat kidney, liver and brain tissue homogenates. In the liver, both activities increased significantly from day 42, in comparison to the 1-day-old tissue (Figure 1 and Table 1). N-SMase was further increased in the 720-day-old tissue compared to 180-day but no changes were observed in A-SMase from day 180 (Figure 1 and Table 2). N-SMase activity in liver was higher than that of the kidney and brain (Figure 1A). In brain, N-SMase increased significantly from day 42, while A-SMase from day 180 (Figure 1 and Table 1). In the kidney, both activities increased from day 180. A-SMase activities in the brain and kidney tissues from day 720 increased significantly, compared to the respective 180-day- and 520-day-old tissues (Figure 1B and Table 2). N-SMase activities in the 710-day-old kidney tissue increased compared to the 180-day-old tissue but not in the brain (Figure 1A and Table 2). However, A-SMase activity was relatively lower than N-SMase in all the tested tissues. For example, N-SMase activities of kidney, liver and brain tissues at 710-days were about 9-fold, 49-fold and 20-fold higher than that of A-SMase activities from each respective tissue. Nevertheless, the increase in activity of A-SMase appeared to be dependent on aging after 180 days in the kidney and brain tissues. This implied practical roles of A-SMase during aging in the kidney and brain. In the liver, however, N-SMase might play a more significant role during aging based on its relatively higher activity among the different tissues and its further increase during aging.

Bottom Line: The activities of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes were significantly elevated in all tested tissues during development and aging, although the onset of significant increase in activity varied on the tissue and enzyme type.During aging, 18 out of 21 enzyme activities were further increased on day 720 compared to day 180.Differential increases in sphingolipid metabolic enzyme activities suggest that sphingolipids including ceramide and sphingosine might play important and dynamic roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development and aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratories of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy (BK21 Project) and Longevity Institute of Life Science and Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT

Aim: To understand the contribution of sphingolipid metabolism and its metabolites to development and aging.

Methods: A systemic analysis on the changes in activity of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes in kidney, liver and brain tissues during development and aging was conducted. The study was conducted using tissues from 1-day-old to 720-day-old rats.

Results: Catabolic enzyme activities as well as the level of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and ceramidase (CDase) were higher than that of anabolic enzyme activities, sphingomyelin synthase and ceramide synthase. This suggested an accumulation of ceramide and sphingosine during development and aging. The liver showed the highest neutral-SMase activity among the tested enzymes while the kidney and brain exhibited higher neutral-SMase and ceramidase activities, indicating a high production of ceramide in liver and ceramide/sphingosine in the kidney and brain. The activities of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes were significantly elevated in all tested tissues during development and aging, although the onset of significant increase in activity varied on the tissue and enzyme type. During aging, 18 out of 21 enzyme activities were further increased on day 720 compared to day 180.

Conclusion: Differential increases in sphingolipid metabolic enzyme activities suggest that sphingolipids including ceramide and sphingosine might play important and dynamic roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development and aging.

Show MeSH