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Cigarette smoking and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort.

Nyante SJ, Gierach GL, Dallal CM, Freedman ND, Park Y, Danforth KN, Hollenbeck AR, Brinton LA - Br. J. Cancer (2014)

Bottom Line: Multiplicative interactions were evaluated using the likelihood ratio test.The current smoking association was also stronger among those with later (≥ 15 years: HR 1.52, CI 1.20-1.94) as compared with earlier (≥12 years: HR 1.14, CI 1.03-1.27; 13-14 years: HR 1.18, CI 1.05-1.32) ages at menarche (P-interaction=0.03).Risk was elevated in smokers, particularly in those without a family history or late menarche.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, potentially due to modification by other factors or confounding.

Methods: We examined smoking and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of 186 150 female AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Persons) members, ages 50-71 years, who joined the study in 1995-96 by responding to a questionnaire. Through 2006, 7481 breast cancers were diagnosed. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated, overall and stratified by breast cancer risk factors, using Cox proportional hazards regression. Multiplicative interactions were evaluated using the likelihood ratio test.

Results: Increased breast cancer risk was associated with current (HR 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.28) and former (HR 1.07, CI 1.01-1.13) smoking. The current smoking association was stronger among women without (HR 1.24, CI 1.15-1.35) as compared to those with a family history of breast cancer (HR 0.94, CI 0.78-1.13) (P-interaction=0.03). The current smoking association was also stronger among those with later (≥ 15 years: HR 1.52, CI 1.20-1.94) as compared with earlier (≥12 years: HR 1.14, CI 1.03-1.27; 13-14 years: HR 1.18, CI 1.05-1.32) ages at menarche (P-interaction=0.03).

Conclusions: Risk was elevated in smokers, particularly in those without a family history or late menarche. Research into smoking's effects on the genome and breast development may clarify these relationships.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The relationship between smoking and breast cancer risk was examined in 186 150 female, postmenopausal participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. Exclusion criteria are shown in the figure.
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fig1: The relationship between smoking and breast cancer risk was examined in 186 150 female, postmenopausal participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. Exclusion criteria are shown in the figure.

Mentions: Of 617 119 questionnaires returned, 567 169 were completed satisfactorily (Schatzkin et al, 2001). For this analysis, we excluded responses that were duplicates (N=179) or completed by proxy (N=15 760). We also excluded respondents who were male (N=325 172), had prevalent cancer (N=23 961), moved from the study area or died before the questionnaire was returned (N=592), were premenopausal or had unknown menopausal status (N=9420), withdrew from the study (N=9), or did not provide smoking information (N=5926), resulting in 186 150 postmenopausal women in the analytic cohort (Figure 1).


Cigarette smoking and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort.

Nyante SJ, Gierach GL, Dallal CM, Freedman ND, Park Y, Danforth KN, Hollenbeck AR, Brinton LA - Br. J. Cancer (2014)

The relationship between smoking and breast cancer risk was examined in 186 150 female, postmenopausal participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. Exclusion criteria are shown in the figure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4007228&req=5

fig1: The relationship between smoking and breast cancer risk was examined in 186 150 female, postmenopausal participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. Exclusion criteria are shown in the figure.
Mentions: Of 617 119 questionnaires returned, 567 169 were completed satisfactorily (Schatzkin et al, 2001). For this analysis, we excluded responses that were duplicates (N=179) or completed by proxy (N=15 760). We also excluded respondents who were male (N=325 172), had prevalent cancer (N=23 961), moved from the study area or died before the questionnaire was returned (N=592), were premenopausal or had unknown menopausal status (N=9420), withdrew from the study (N=9), or did not provide smoking information (N=5926), resulting in 186 150 postmenopausal women in the analytic cohort (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Multiplicative interactions were evaluated using the likelihood ratio test.The current smoking association was also stronger among those with later (≥ 15 years: HR 1.52, CI 1.20-1.94) as compared with earlier (≥12 years: HR 1.14, CI 1.03-1.27; 13-14 years: HR 1.18, CI 1.05-1.32) ages at menarche (P-interaction=0.03).Risk was elevated in smokers, particularly in those without a family history or late menarche.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, potentially due to modification by other factors or confounding.

Methods: We examined smoking and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of 186 150 female AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Persons) members, ages 50-71 years, who joined the study in 1995-96 by responding to a questionnaire. Through 2006, 7481 breast cancers were diagnosed. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated, overall and stratified by breast cancer risk factors, using Cox proportional hazards regression. Multiplicative interactions were evaluated using the likelihood ratio test.

Results: Increased breast cancer risk was associated with current (HR 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.28) and former (HR 1.07, CI 1.01-1.13) smoking. The current smoking association was stronger among women without (HR 1.24, CI 1.15-1.35) as compared to those with a family history of breast cancer (HR 0.94, CI 0.78-1.13) (P-interaction=0.03). The current smoking association was also stronger among those with later (≥ 15 years: HR 1.52, CI 1.20-1.94) as compared with earlier (≥12 years: HR 1.14, CI 1.03-1.27; 13-14 years: HR 1.18, CI 1.05-1.32) ages at menarche (P-interaction=0.03).

Conclusions: Risk was elevated in smokers, particularly in those without a family history or late menarche. Research into smoking's effects on the genome and breast development may clarify these relationships.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus