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The heart as an endocrine organ.

Ogawa T, de Bold AJ - Endocr Connect (2014)

Bottom Line: In addition to the cNPs, other polypeptide hormones are expressed in the heart that likely act upon the myocardium in a paracrine or autocrine fashion.These include the C-type natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide and endothelin-1.In addition, therapeutic uses for these peptides or related substances have been found.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Endocrinology LaboratoryUniversity of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Y 4W7.

ABSTRACT
The concept of the heart as an endocrine organ arises from the observation that the atrial cardiomyocytes in the mammalian heart display a phenotype that is partly that of endocrine cells. Investigations carried out between 1971 and 1983 characterised, by virtue of its natriuretic properties, a polypeptide referred to atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Another polypeptide isolated from brain in 1988, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), was subsequently characterised as a second hormone produced by the mammalian heart atria. These peptides were associated with the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Later work demonstrated a plethora of other properties for ANF and BNP, now designated cardiac natriuretic peptides (cNPs). In addition to the cNPs, other polypeptide hormones are expressed in the heart that likely act upon the myocardium in a paracrine or autocrine fashion. These include the C-type natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide and endothelin-1. Expression and secretion of ANF and BNP are increased in various cardiovascular pathologies and their levels in blood are used in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. In addition, therapeutic uses for these peptides or related substances have been found. In all, the discovery of the endocrine heart provided a shift from the classical functional paradigm of the heart that regarded this organ solely as a blood pump to one that regards this organ as self-regulating its workload humorally and that also influences the function of several other organs that control cardiovascular function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transmission electron microscopy of a portion of a mouse atrial cardiomyocyte showing a portion of the nucleus (Nuc) as well as mitochondria (Mit), myofibrils (Myo), Golgi complex (Golgi) and specific atrial granules (Gran). Original magnification: 5000×.
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fig1: Transmission electron microscopy of a portion of a mouse atrial cardiomyocyte showing a portion of the nucleus (Nuc) as well as mitochondria (Mit), myofibrils (Myo), Golgi complex (Golgi) and specific atrial granules (Gran). Original magnification: 5000×.

Mentions: The phenotype of ventricular cardiomyocytes reflects functions associated with properties inherent to their mechanical task and the conduction of electrical excitation arising from the sino-atrial node. The advent of the electron microscope demonstrated in mammalian atrial cardiomyocytes elements that were previously associated with polypeptide hormone-producing cells. These included abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, highly developed Golgi complex and storage granules referred to as atrial-specific granules (Fig. 1) (1, 2).


The heart as an endocrine organ.

Ogawa T, de Bold AJ - Endocr Connect (2014)

Transmission electron microscopy of a portion of a mouse atrial cardiomyocyte showing a portion of the nucleus (Nuc) as well as mitochondria (Mit), myofibrils (Myo), Golgi complex (Golgi) and specific atrial granules (Gran). Original magnification: 5000×.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3987289&req=5

fig1: Transmission electron microscopy of a portion of a mouse atrial cardiomyocyte showing a portion of the nucleus (Nuc) as well as mitochondria (Mit), myofibrils (Myo), Golgi complex (Golgi) and specific atrial granules (Gran). Original magnification: 5000×.
Mentions: The phenotype of ventricular cardiomyocytes reflects functions associated with properties inherent to their mechanical task and the conduction of electrical excitation arising from the sino-atrial node. The advent of the electron microscope demonstrated in mammalian atrial cardiomyocytes elements that were previously associated with polypeptide hormone-producing cells. These included abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, highly developed Golgi complex and storage granules referred to as atrial-specific granules (Fig. 1) (1, 2).

Bottom Line: In addition to the cNPs, other polypeptide hormones are expressed in the heart that likely act upon the myocardium in a paracrine or autocrine fashion.These include the C-type natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide and endothelin-1.In addition, therapeutic uses for these peptides or related substances have been found.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular Endocrinology LaboratoryUniversity of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Y 4W7.

ABSTRACT
The concept of the heart as an endocrine organ arises from the observation that the atrial cardiomyocytes in the mammalian heart display a phenotype that is partly that of endocrine cells. Investigations carried out between 1971 and 1983 characterised, by virtue of its natriuretic properties, a polypeptide referred to atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Another polypeptide isolated from brain in 1988, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), was subsequently characterised as a second hormone produced by the mammalian heart atria. These peptides were associated with the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Later work demonstrated a plethora of other properties for ANF and BNP, now designated cardiac natriuretic peptides (cNPs). In addition to the cNPs, other polypeptide hormones are expressed in the heart that likely act upon the myocardium in a paracrine or autocrine fashion. These include the C-type natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide and endothelin-1. Expression and secretion of ANF and BNP are increased in various cardiovascular pathologies and their levels in blood are used in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. In addition, therapeutic uses for these peptides or related substances have been found. In all, the discovery of the endocrine heart provided a shift from the classical functional paradigm of the heart that regarded this organ solely as a blood pump to one that regards this organ as self-regulating its workload humorally and that also influences the function of several other organs that control cardiovascular function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus