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High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America.

Montes Osorio LR, Torres Salvador AF, Jongschaap RE, Azurdia Perez CA, Berduo Sandoval JE, Trindade LM, Visser RG, van Loo EN - BMC Plant Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations.A high level of genetic variation was found on early growth traits and on components of the relative growth rate (specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and net assimilation rate) as indicated by significant differences between accessions and by the high heritability values (50-88%).Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 386, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands. robert.vanloo@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production.

Results: Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard's similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P < 0.0001) indicated high genetic variation within regions (81.7%) and low variation across regions (18.3%). A high level of genetic variation was found on early growth traits and on components of the relative growth rate (specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and net assimilation rate) as indicated by significant differences between accessions and by the high heritability values (50-88%). The fatty acid composition of jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions.

Conclusions: The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation.

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Phenotypic variation in the JEP collection. Variation in the number of fruit (A and B). Male flower plant (C). Female flower plant -type 1- (D). Female flower plant -type 2- (E). Bracteole inflorescence (F). Different leave shapes (G, H, I, J and K). Leaves size variation (L). Different canopy types observed in jatropha (M, N and O).
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Figure 5: Phenotypic variation in the JEP collection. Variation in the number of fruit (A and B). Male flower plant (C). Female flower plant -type 1- (D). Female flower plant -type 2- (E). Bracteole inflorescence (F). Different leave shapes (G, H, I, J and K). Leaves size variation (L). Different canopy types observed in jatropha (M, N and O).

Mentions: This is the first published comprehensive study of Jatropha curcas biodiversity among a world wide collection of accessions that assesses both molecular genetic variation nd variation in phenotypic traits. Large phenotypic variation between jatropha accessions in the world-wide JEP collection was observed in plant characteristics like early growth traits, flowering type, tree architecture and leaf shape and size. Most phenotypic variation was found among accessions from Central America (Figure 5). It was at first unknown whether this variation was only due to environmental variation or due to genetic factors.


High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America.

Montes Osorio LR, Torres Salvador AF, Jongschaap RE, Azurdia Perez CA, Berduo Sandoval JE, Trindade LM, Visser RG, van Loo EN - BMC Plant Biol. (2014)

Phenotypic variation in the JEP collection. Variation in the number of fruit (A and B). Male flower plant (C). Female flower plant -type 1- (D). Female flower plant -type 2- (E). Bracteole inflorescence (F). Different leave shapes (G, H, I, J and K). Leaves size variation (L). Different canopy types observed in jatropha (M, N and O).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3987055&req=5

Figure 5: Phenotypic variation in the JEP collection. Variation in the number of fruit (A and B). Male flower plant (C). Female flower plant -type 1- (D). Female flower plant -type 2- (E). Bracteole inflorescence (F). Different leave shapes (G, H, I, J and K). Leaves size variation (L). Different canopy types observed in jatropha (M, N and O).
Mentions: This is the first published comprehensive study of Jatropha curcas biodiversity among a world wide collection of accessions that assesses both molecular genetic variation nd variation in phenotypic traits. Large phenotypic variation between jatropha accessions in the world-wide JEP collection was observed in plant characteristics like early growth traits, flowering type, tree architecture and leaf shape and size. Most phenotypic variation was found among accessions from Central America (Figure 5). It was at first unknown whether this variation was only due to environmental variation or due to genetic factors.

Bottom Line: Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations.A high level of genetic variation was found on early growth traits and on components of the relative growth rate (specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and net assimilation rate) as indicated by significant differences between accessions and by the high heritability values (50-88%).Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 386, 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands. robert.vanloo@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production.

Results: Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard's similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P < 0.0001) indicated high genetic variation within regions (81.7%) and low variation across regions (18.3%). A high level of genetic variation was found on early growth traits and on components of the relative growth rate (specific leaf area, leaf weight, leaf weight ratio and net assimilation rate) as indicated by significant differences between accessions and by the high heritability values (50-88%). The fatty acid composition of jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions.

Conclusions: The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus