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Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys.

Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Fahimi S, Lim S, Andrews KG, Engell RE, Powles J, Ezzati M, Mozaffarian D, Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group NutriCo - BMJ (2014)

Bottom Line: Intakes were similar by sex.Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased.These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010.

Design: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty.

Setting and population: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time.

Results: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥ 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤ 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (≥ 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥ 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased.

Conclusions: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

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Fig 1 Flow diagram of systematic search for nationally representative surveys of food and nutrient intake
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fig1: Fig 1 Flow diagram of systematic search for nationally representative surveys of food and nutrient intake

Mentions: We performed systematic searches for individual level dietary surveys in all countries. Surveys with evidence for selection bias or measurement bias were excluded. Using standardised criteria and methods,19 we searched multiple online databases from March 2008 to September 2010 without date or language restrictions. From these searches, we identified comparably few appropriate published data sources. Thus, from March 2008 to July 2012, we also used extensive personal communications with researchers and government authorities throughout the world, including authors of published nutrition studies and nutrition authorities in a given country, inviting them to be corresponding members of the NutriCoDE group (fig 1). For countries lacking identified national or subnational individual-level surveys by these methods, we searched for other potential data sources, including individual level surveys from large cohorts, the WHO Global Infobase, the WHO Stepwise Approach To Surveillance (STEPS) database, and budget survey data at the household level. Given our aim to evaluate chronic diseases, we focused on data from adults (aged ≥20 years). The results of our search strategy by dietary factor, time, and region have been reported.32 A total of 266 surveys in adults representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population were identified (fig 1).


Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys.

Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Fahimi S, Lim S, Andrews KG, Engell RE, Powles J, Ezzati M, Mozaffarian D, Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group NutriCo - BMJ (2014)

Fig 1 Flow diagram of systematic search for nationally representative surveys of food and nutrient intake
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3987052&req=5

fig1: Fig 1 Flow diagram of systematic search for nationally representative surveys of food and nutrient intake
Mentions: We performed systematic searches for individual level dietary surveys in all countries. Surveys with evidence for selection bias or measurement bias were excluded. Using standardised criteria and methods,19 we searched multiple online databases from March 2008 to September 2010 without date or language restrictions. From these searches, we identified comparably few appropriate published data sources. Thus, from March 2008 to July 2012, we also used extensive personal communications with researchers and government authorities throughout the world, including authors of published nutrition studies and nutrition authorities in a given country, inviting them to be corresponding members of the NutriCoDE group (fig 1). For countries lacking identified national or subnational individual-level surveys by these methods, we searched for other potential data sources, including individual level surveys from large cohorts, the WHO Global Infobase, the WHO Stepwise Approach To Surveillance (STEPS) database, and budget survey data at the household level. Given our aim to evaluate chronic diseases, we focused on data from adults (aged ≥20 years). The results of our search strategy by dietary factor, time, and region have been reported.32 A total of 266 surveys in adults representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population were identified (fig 1).

Bottom Line: Intakes were similar by sex.Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased.These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010.

Design: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty.

Setting and population: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time.

Results: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥ 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤ 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (≥ 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥ 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased.

Conclusions: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

Show MeSH