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Environmental impact assessment and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries.

Yu Y, Chen B, Huang K, Wang X, Wang D - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined.The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious.These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China. yyuepr@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

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Flow diagram of the battery system.
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ijerph-11-03185-f001: Flow diagram of the battery system.

Mentions: System boundaries. The system boundaries were based on the general rules of ISO 14040 and 14044. This study focused on secondary batteries. The product system includes production, use and recycling. Metals and other materials will be recycled as raw materials. The battery charger and other hardware were outside the system boundary. Only the battery itself and its casing were considered. Figure 1 presents the system definition. Because there were different ways of using batteries, short transports were assumed in the use phase. Long transports were assumed in battery manufacture and the end-of-life treatment.


Environmental impact assessment and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries.

Yu Y, Chen B, Huang K, Wang X, Wang D - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Flow diagram of the battery system.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3987029&req=5

ijerph-11-03185-f001: Flow diagram of the battery system.
Mentions: System boundaries. The system boundaries were based on the general rules of ISO 14040 and 14044. This study focused on secondary batteries. The product system includes production, use and recycling. Metals and other materials will be recycled as raw materials. The battery charger and other hardware were outside the system boundary. Only the battery itself and its casing were considered. Figure 1 presents the system definition. Because there were different ways of using batteries, short transports were assumed in the use phase. Long transports were assumed in battery manufacture and the end-of-life treatment.

Bottom Line: Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined.The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious.These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China. yyuepr@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus