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Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

Indermitte E, Saava A, Karro E - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis.The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS.As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, Tartu 50411, Estonia. ene.indermitte@ut.ee.

ABSTRACT
Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

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Implemented measures by the size of PWS and concentration of fluoride (exposure intensity) in drinking water.
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ijerph-11-03132-f002: Implemented measures by the size of PWS and concentration of fluoride (exposure intensity) in drinking water.

Mentions: The distribution of implemented measures by the size of PWS and the content of fluoride in water (exposure intensity) are presented in Figure 2.


Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

Indermitte E, Saava A, Karro E - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Implemented measures by the size of PWS and concentration of fluoride (exposure intensity) in drinking water.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3987025&req=5

ijerph-11-03132-f002: Implemented measures by the size of PWS and concentration of fluoride (exposure intensity) in drinking water.
Mentions: The distribution of implemented measures by the size of PWS and the content of fluoride in water (exposure intensity) are presented in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis.The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS.As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, Tartu 50411, Estonia. ene.indermitte@ut.ee.

ABSTRACT
Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus