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Comparing the selection and placement of best management practices in improving water quality using a multiobjective optimization and targeting method.

Chiang LC, Chaubey I, Maringanti C, Huang T - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Suites of Best Management Practices (BMPs) are usually selected to be economically and environmentally efficient in reducing nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in a watershed.The results showed that the optimization is less effective when vegetated filter strips (VFS) are not considered, and it requires much longer computation times than the targeting method to search for optimum BMPs.Although the targeting method is effective in selecting and placing an optimum BMP, larger areas are needed for BMP implementation to achieve the same pollutant reductions as the optimization method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil and Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan. lchiang@nuu.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT
Suites of Best Management Practices (BMPs) are usually selected to be economically and environmentally efficient in reducing nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in a watershed. The objective of this research was to compare the selection and placement of BMPs in a pasture-dominated watershed using multiobjective optimization and targeting methods. Two objective functions were used in the optimization process, which minimize pollutant losses and the BMP placement areas. The optimization tool was an integration of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool-SWAT). For the targeting method, an optimum BMP option was implemented in critical areas in the watershed that contribute the greatest pollutant losses. A total of 171 BMP combinations, which consist of grazing management, vegetated filter strips (VFS), and poultry litter applications were considered. The results showed that the optimization is less effective when vegetated filter strips (VFS) are not considered, and it requires much longer computation times than the targeting method to search for optimum BMPs. Although the targeting method is effective in selecting and placing an optimum BMP, larger areas are needed for BMP implementation to achieve the same pollutant reductions as the optimization method.

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Distribution of BMPs selected by the targeting method on 77% of the pasture lands in the watershed.
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ijerph-11-02992-f008: Distribution of BMPs selected by the targeting method on 77% of the pasture lands in the watershed.

Mentions: Compared to the distribution of the BMP-implemented area from the optimization tool, a slightly different distribution of the selected BMP in the watershed by using the targeting tool was observed (Figure 8). It should be noted that the total percentage of original pasture lands that have BMP implemented is the same as the solution from the optimization tool. The BMP combination (BMP 81) that has the greatest TN reduction rate was selected as the optimal BMP combination to reduce TN losses. Likewise, the BMP combination (BMP 59) was selected as the optimal BMP combination to reduce TP losses. The blue areas denote no BMPs were selected for those areas. It was observed that the distributions of targeted area for reducing TN and TP losses were different, indicating that a proper BMP combination needs to be adopted to reduce both pollutants of concern.


Comparing the selection and placement of best management practices in improving water quality using a multiobjective optimization and targeting method.

Chiang LC, Chaubey I, Maringanti C, Huang T - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Distribution of BMPs selected by the targeting method on 77% of the pasture lands in the watershed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3987017&req=5

ijerph-11-02992-f008: Distribution of BMPs selected by the targeting method on 77% of the pasture lands in the watershed.
Mentions: Compared to the distribution of the BMP-implemented area from the optimization tool, a slightly different distribution of the selected BMP in the watershed by using the targeting tool was observed (Figure 8). It should be noted that the total percentage of original pasture lands that have BMP implemented is the same as the solution from the optimization tool. The BMP combination (BMP 81) that has the greatest TN reduction rate was selected as the optimal BMP combination to reduce TN losses. Likewise, the BMP combination (BMP 59) was selected as the optimal BMP combination to reduce TP losses. The blue areas denote no BMPs were selected for those areas. It was observed that the distributions of targeted area for reducing TN and TP losses were different, indicating that a proper BMP combination needs to be adopted to reduce both pollutants of concern.

Bottom Line: Suites of Best Management Practices (BMPs) are usually selected to be economically and environmentally efficient in reducing nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in a watershed.The results showed that the optimization is less effective when vegetated filter strips (VFS) are not considered, and it requires much longer computation times than the targeting method to search for optimum BMPs.Although the targeting method is effective in selecting and placing an optimum BMP, larger areas are needed for BMP implementation to achieve the same pollutant reductions as the optimization method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil and Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan. lchiang@nuu.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT
Suites of Best Management Practices (BMPs) are usually selected to be economically and environmentally efficient in reducing nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas in a watershed. The objective of this research was to compare the selection and placement of BMPs in a pasture-dominated watershed using multiobjective optimization and targeting methods. Two objective functions were used in the optimization process, which minimize pollutant losses and the BMP placement areas. The optimization tool was an integration of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool-SWAT). For the targeting method, an optimum BMP option was implemented in critical areas in the watershed that contribute the greatest pollutant losses. A total of 171 BMP combinations, which consist of grazing management, vegetated filter strips (VFS), and poultry litter applications were considered. The results showed that the optimization is less effective when vegetated filter strips (VFS) are not considered, and it requires much longer computation times than the targeting method to search for optimum BMPs. Although the targeting method is effective in selecting and placing an optimum BMP, larger areas are needed for BMP implementation to achieve the same pollutant reductions as the optimization method.

Show MeSH