Limits...
An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in Taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.

Kung CC, McCarl BA, Chen CC - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits.Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated.The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Poyang Lake Eco-economics, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang 330013, China. cckung78@jxufe.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Net GHG emissions offset when biochar is burned for energy; (b) Net GHG emissions offset when biochar is used as a soil amendment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3987016&req=5

ijerph-11-02973-f003: (a) Net GHG emissions offset when biochar is burned for energy; (b) Net GHG emissions offset when biochar is used as a soil amendment.

Mentions: Figure 3a,b indicates the net GHG emissions from bioenergy production. As expected, net GHG emissions offsets increase when the GHG price increases. When land emissions are incorporated and biochar is applied to cropland, the highest net GHG emissions reductions are achieved. This result indicates that there is competition between domestic energy production and climate change mitigation. The result indicates that the largest net GHG emissions reduction occurs when Taiwan’s bioenergy production does not achieve the maximal. Slow pyrolysis and biochar application to crops is the best GHG alternative while fast pyrolysis with the biochar burned for electricity is the best energy alternative. The net GHG emission reduction of burning biochar scenarios when considering land emissions is higher than that in no land emissions scenarios because higher portion of electricity are produced from slow pyrolysis, which yield low electricity but high biochar. However, although slow pyrolysis produces more biochar, land emissions do offset the environmental benefits from using biochar as a soil amendment. Therefore, net emissions offset is lower when land emissions are incorporated.


An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in Taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.

Kung CC, McCarl BA, Chen CC - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

(a) Net GHG emissions offset when biochar is burned for energy; (b) Net GHG emissions offset when biochar is used as a soil amendment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3987016&req=5

ijerph-11-02973-f003: (a) Net GHG emissions offset when biochar is burned for energy; (b) Net GHG emissions offset when biochar is used as a soil amendment.
Mentions: Figure 3a,b indicates the net GHG emissions from bioenergy production. As expected, net GHG emissions offsets increase when the GHG price increases. When land emissions are incorporated and biochar is applied to cropland, the highest net GHG emissions reductions are achieved. This result indicates that there is competition between domestic energy production and climate change mitigation. The result indicates that the largest net GHG emissions reduction occurs when Taiwan’s bioenergy production does not achieve the maximal. Slow pyrolysis and biochar application to crops is the best GHG alternative while fast pyrolysis with the biochar burned for electricity is the best energy alternative. The net GHG emission reduction of burning biochar scenarios when considering land emissions is higher than that in no land emissions scenarios because higher portion of electricity are produced from slow pyrolysis, which yield low electricity but high biochar. However, although slow pyrolysis produces more biochar, land emissions do offset the environmental benefits from using biochar as a soil amendment. Therefore, net emissions offset is lower when land emissions are incorporated.

Bottom Line: Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits.Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated.The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Poyang Lake Eco-economics, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang 330013, China. cckung78@jxufe.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus