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Changes of heavy metals in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) in Korea.

Kwon YS, Bae MJ, Park YS - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: From the database, we selected nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Sb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Sn, and Ni) and compared the differences in their effluent for different types of industries.The heavy metal effluents released into freshwater ecosystems were classified into four clusters through the learning process of the self-organizing map.Cluster 1 was characterized by the relatively higher effluent volumes of heavy metals, whereas cluster 4 had lower effluent volumes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea. davy3021@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Industrial effluent containing heavy metals discharged into streams may pose high toxicity risks to aquatic organisms and to human health. Therefore, it is important to understand how to change the amount of effluent with heavy metals discharged from industries into open aquatic ecosystems both for effective management of heavy metals and to foster sustainable ecosystems. This study was conducted to characterize the release of heavy metals from industries based on the Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers database in Korea from 1999 to 2010. From the database, we selected nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Sb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Sn, and Ni) and compared the differences in their effluent for different types of industries. The heavy metal effluents released into freshwater ecosystems were classified into four clusters through the learning process of the self-organizing map. Cluster 1 was characterized by the relatively higher effluent volumes of heavy metals, whereas cluster 4 had lower effluent volumes. The different patterns of the effluent volumes in heavy metals were closely associated with the differences of industrial types, and the changes of effluents of heavy metals reflected the changes in regulations and laws for aquatic ecosystem management.

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Changes of the number of industrial factories and effluents of nine heavy metals from 1999 to 2010.
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ijerph-11-02381-f002: Changes of the number of industrial factories and effluents of nine heavy metals from 1999 to 2010.

Mentions: The number of industrial factories discharging heavy metals increased dramatically after 2003 for all heavy metals (Figure 2). The effluents of heavy metals were significantly correlated with the number of factories (r = 0.31, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, different heavy metals displayed different patterns of effluent volumes. Mn was reported in the PRTR after 2001, and it displayed a slight change during the study period, with the exception of 2003, 2008, and 2009. Effluent volumes of Pb and Cd were high in 2006, and those of Ni, Cr, and Cu were at a maximum value in 2007. Mn, Zn, and Sb displayed the highest effluent volumes in Ulsan (Figure 3), whereas other heavy metals showed relatively high values at Gyeonggi (Cr, Ni, and Cu) and Gyeongbuk (Pb, Sn, and Cd).


Changes of heavy metals in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) in Korea.

Kwon YS, Bae MJ, Park YS - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Changes of the number of industrial factories and effluents of nine heavy metals from 1999 to 2010.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3986981&req=5

ijerph-11-02381-f002: Changes of the number of industrial factories and effluents of nine heavy metals from 1999 to 2010.
Mentions: The number of industrial factories discharging heavy metals increased dramatically after 2003 for all heavy metals (Figure 2). The effluents of heavy metals were significantly correlated with the number of factories (r = 0.31, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, different heavy metals displayed different patterns of effluent volumes. Mn was reported in the PRTR after 2001, and it displayed a slight change during the study period, with the exception of 2003, 2008, and 2009. Effluent volumes of Pb and Cd were high in 2006, and those of Ni, Cr, and Cu were at a maximum value in 2007. Mn, Zn, and Sb displayed the highest effluent volumes in Ulsan (Figure 3), whereas other heavy metals showed relatively high values at Gyeonggi (Cr, Ni, and Cu) and Gyeongbuk (Pb, Sn, and Cd).

Bottom Line: From the database, we selected nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Sb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Sn, and Ni) and compared the differences in their effluent for different types of industries.The heavy metal effluents released into freshwater ecosystems were classified into four clusters through the learning process of the self-organizing map.Cluster 1 was characterized by the relatively higher effluent volumes of heavy metals, whereas cluster 4 had lower effluent volumes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea. davy3021@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Industrial effluent containing heavy metals discharged into streams may pose high toxicity risks to aquatic organisms and to human health. Therefore, it is important to understand how to change the amount of effluent with heavy metals discharged from industries into open aquatic ecosystems both for effective management of heavy metals and to foster sustainable ecosystems. This study was conducted to characterize the release of heavy metals from industries based on the Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers database in Korea from 1999 to 2010. From the database, we selected nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Sb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Sn, and Ni) and compared the differences in their effluent for different types of industries. The heavy metal effluents released into freshwater ecosystems were classified into four clusters through the learning process of the self-organizing map. Cluster 1 was characterized by the relatively higher effluent volumes of heavy metals, whereas cluster 4 had lower effluent volumes. The different patterns of the effluent volumes in heavy metals were closely associated with the differences of industrial types, and the changes of effluents of heavy metals reflected the changes in regulations and laws for aquatic ecosystem management.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus