Limits...
Validation of a general measure of treatment satisfaction, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM), using a national panel study of chronic disease.

Atkinson MJ, Sinha A, Hass SL, Colman SS, Kumar RN, Brod M, Rowland CR - Health Qual Life Outcomes (2004)

Bottom Line: A factor analysis (principal component extraction with varimax rotation) of specific items revealed three factors (Eigenvalues > 1.7) explaining 75.6% of the total variance; namely Side effects (4 items, 28.4%, Cronbach's Alpha =.87), Effectiveness (3 items, 24.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.85), and Convenience (3 items, 23.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.87).Significant differences were found on the TSQM by the route of medication administration (oral, injectable, topical, inhalable), level of illness severity, and length of time on medication.Preliminary evidence suggests that the TSQM may also be a good predictor of patients' medication adherence across different types of medication and patient populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Worldwide Outcomes Research, La Jolla Laboratories, Pfizer Inc, 10777 Science Center Drive (B-95), San Diego, CA 92121-1111, USA. mark.j.atkinson@pfizer.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a general measure of patients' satisfaction with medication, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM).

Methods: The content and format of 55 initial questions were based on a formal conceptual framework, an extensive literature review, and the input from three patient focus groups. Patient interviews were used to select the most relevant questions for further evaluation (n = 31). The psychometric performance of items and resulting TSQM scales were examined using eight diverse patient groups (arthritis, asthma, major depression, type I diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, migraine, and psoriasis) recruited from a national longitudinal panel study of chronic illness (n = 567). Participants were then randomized to complete the test items using one of two alternate scaling methods (Visual Analogue vs. Likert-type).

Results: A factor analysis (principal component extraction with varimax rotation) of specific items revealed three factors (Eigenvalues > 1.7) explaining 75.6% of the total variance; namely Side effects (4 items, 28.4%, Cronbach's Alpha =.87), Effectiveness (3 items, 24.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.85), and Convenience (3 items, 23.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.87). A second factor analysis of more generally worded items yielded a Global Satisfaction scale (3 items, Eigenvalue = 2.3, 79.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.85). The final four scales possessed good psychometric properties, with the Likert-type scaling method performing better than the VAS approach. Significant differences were found on the TSQM by the route of medication administration (oral, injectable, topical, inhalable), level of illness severity, and length of time on medication. Regression analyses using the TSQM scales accounted for 40-60% of variation in patients' ratings of their likelihood to persist with their current medication.

Conclusion: The TSQM is a psychometrically sound and valid measure of the major dimensions of patients' satisfaction with medication. Preliminary evidence suggests that the TSQM may also be a good predictor of patients' medication adherence across different types of medication and patient populations.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean Medication Satisfaction Levels by Route of Administration Notes: Effectiveness by Route, F(3,552) = 11.98, p < .0001 Side Effects by Route, F(3,552) = 5.87, P < .001 Convenience by Route, F(3, 552) = 58.92, p < .0001 Global by Route, F(3, 552) = 4.89, p < .01
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC398419&req=5

Figure 1: Mean Medication Satisfaction Levels by Route of Administration Notes: Effectiveness by Route, F(3,552) = 11.98, p < .0001 Side Effects by Route, F(3,552) = 5.87, P < .001 Convenience by Route, F(3, 552) = 58.92, p < .0001 Global by Route, F(3, 552) = 4.89, p < .01

Mentions: No significant differences in mean TSQM scale scores were observed by gender or education level. Significant differences in satisfaction levels were found on all TSQM scales by route of medication administration (Figure 1). As documented elsewhere, individuals using injectables reported low satisfaction with convenience of use [68]. Also, despite low ratings on SIDEF and CONV by the injectable group, the GLOBAL and EFFECT ratings were highest – presumably due to the influence of insulin-dependence in our injectable sample. Also, consistent with other research, high GLOBAL and CONV ratings were associated with orally administered medications [68-70] although satisfaction with the effectiveness of oral medications was a bit lower than with the injectables. The topicals were associated with the highest levels of satisfaction with SIDEF and CONV, but the lowest levels of on the GLOBAL and EFFECT scales – likely due to their safety and ease of use, but relative ineffectiveness at treating the condition, which in this case was psoriasis [71]. Taken together, these observations provide some evidence for the criterion-related validity of the TSQM scales.


Validation of a general measure of treatment satisfaction, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM), using a national panel study of chronic disease.

Atkinson MJ, Sinha A, Hass SL, Colman SS, Kumar RN, Brod M, Rowland CR - Health Qual Life Outcomes (2004)

Mean Medication Satisfaction Levels by Route of Administration Notes: Effectiveness by Route, F(3,552) = 11.98, p < .0001 Side Effects by Route, F(3,552) = 5.87, P < .001 Convenience by Route, F(3, 552) = 58.92, p < .0001 Global by Route, F(3, 552) = 4.89, p < .01
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC398419&req=5

Figure 1: Mean Medication Satisfaction Levels by Route of Administration Notes: Effectiveness by Route, F(3,552) = 11.98, p < .0001 Side Effects by Route, F(3,552) = 5.87, P < .001 Convenience by Route, F(3, 552) = 58.92, p < .0001 Global by Route, F(3, 552) = 4.89, p < .01
Mentions: No significant differences in mean TSQM scale scores were observed by gender or education level. Significant differences in satisfaction levels were found on all TSQM scales by route of medication administration (Figure 1). As documented elsewhere, individuals using injectables reported low satisfaction with convenience of use [68]. Also, despite low ratings on SIDEF and CONV by the injectable group, the GLOBAL and EFFECT ratings were highest – presumably due to the influence of insulin-dependence in our injectable sample. Also, consistent with other research, high GLOBAL and CONV ratings were associated with orally administered medications [68-70] although satisfaction with the effectiveness of oral medications was a bit lower than with the injectables. The topicals were associated with the highest levels of satisfaction with SIDEF and CONV, but the lowest levels of on the GLOBAL and EFFECT scales – likely due to their safety and ease of use, but relative ineffectiveness at treating the condition, which in this case was psoriasis [71]. Taken together, these observations provide some evidence for the criterion-related validity of the TSQM scales.

Bottom Line: A factor analysis (principal component extraction with varimax rotation) of specific items revealed three factors (Eigenvalues > 1.7) explaining 75.6% of the total variance; namely Side effects (4 items, 28.4%, Cronbach's Alpha =.87), Effectiveness (3 items, 24.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.85), and Convenience (3 items, 23.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.87).Significant differences were found on the TSQM by the route of medication administration (oral, injectable, topical, inhalable), level of illness severity, and length of time on medication.Preliminary evidence suggests that the TSQM may also be a good predictor of patients' medication adherence across different types of medication and patient populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Worldwide Outcomes Research, La Jolla Laboratories, Pfizer Inc, 10777 Science Center Drive (B-95), San Diego, CA 92121-1111, USA. mark.j.atkinson@pfizer.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a general measure of patients' satisfaction with medication, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM).

Methods: The content and format of 55 initial questions were based on a formal conceptual framework, an extensive literature review, and the input from three patient focus groups. Patient interviews were used to select the most relevant questions for further evaluation (n = 31). The psychometric performance of items and resulting TSQM scales were examined using eight diverse patient groups (arthritis, asthma, major depression, type I diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, migraine, and psoriasis) recruited from a national longitudinal panel study of chronic illness (n = 567). Participants were then randomized to complete the test items using one of two alternate scaling methods (Visual Analogue vs. Likert-type).

Results: A factor analysis (principal component extraction with varimax rotation) of specific items revealed three factors (Eigenvalues > 1.7) explaining 75.6% of the total variance; namely Side effects (4 items, 28.4%, Cronbach's Alpha =.87), Effectiveness (3 items, 24.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.85), and Convenience (3 items, 23.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.87). A second factor analysis of more generally worded items yielded a Global Satisfaction scale (3 items, Eigenvalue = 2.3, 79.1%, Cronbach's Alpha =.85). The final four scales possessed good psychometric properties, with the Likert-type scaling method performing better than the VAS approach. Significant differences were found on the TSQM by the route of medication administration (oral, injectable, topical, inhalable), level of illness severity, and length of time on medication. Regression analyses using the TSQM scales accounted for 40-60% of variation in patients' ratings of their likelihood to persist with their current medication.

Conclusion: The TSQM is a psychometrically sound and valid measure of the major dimensions of patients' satisfaction with medication. Preliminary evidence suggests that the TSQM may also be a good predictor of patients' medication adherence across different types of medication and patient populations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus